4,791 research outputs found

    Reef Structure Alternatives for Restoration of Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Populations in New Hampshire

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    Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations in New Hampshire have experienced severe declines since the 1990s, and restoration of oyster populations has been a major goal for New Hampshire management agencies. The most widely used technique in recent years in New Hampshire has been spat seeding which involves setting larvae from disease-resistant and/or fast-growth broodstock onto cultch material in large shore-based tanks, then distributing the spat attached to cultch onto the bottom to initiate reef restoration. This approach has the dual potential of providing direct population enhancement as well as introduction to the local gene pool of disease-resistance and/or fast-growth potential. Although spat seeding has been shown to be an effective technique much remains to be learned about the overall restoration process, particularly specific design criteria, the most effective combinations of methods, and long-term viability of restored bottom areas. The present project was designed in part based on results of earlier experimental work (mainly the use of spat seeding) to address the general management question: How should reefs be structurally enhanced (if at all) to enhance oyster populations and improve spat set

    Privacy Preserving Network Security Data Analytics: Architectures and System Design

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    An incessant rhythm of data breaches, data leaks, and privacy exposure highlights the need to improve control over potentially sensitive data. History has shown that neither public nor private sector organizations are immune. Lax data handling, incidental leakage, and adversarial breaches are all contributing factors. Prudent organizations should consider the sensitive nature of network security data. Logged events often contain data elements that are directly correlated with sensitive information about people and their activities -- often at the same level of detail as sensor data. Our intent is to produce a database which holds network security data representative of people\u27s interaction with the network mid-points and end-points without the problems of identifiability. In this paper we discuss architectures and propose a system design that supports a risk based approach to privacy preserving data publication of network security data that enables network security data analytics research

    Cognitive abilities that predict success in a computer-based training program.

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    PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were (a) to identify cognitive abilities and other factors related to successful completion of training for computer-based tasks that simulated real jobs and (b) to create a brief assessment battery useful in assessing older adults for these kinds of jobs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants from three age groups (young, middle-aged, and older) completed a battery of cognitive measures. They then trained on one of three computer-based tasks that simulated actual jobs and were asked to perform the tasks for 3 days. We recorded whether they completed training and whether and how well they did the tasks. In a series of logistic regressions, we evaluated the ability of a subset of cognitive measures drawn from a larger battery to predict participants\u27 ability to successfully complete training and go on to task performance. RESULTS: Results confirmed theory-based expectations that measures of domain knowledge, crystallized intelligence, memory, and psychomotor speed would predict success in computer-based activities. A brief battery was able to predict older adults\u27 successful completion of training for one task but was less useful for another. IMPLICATIONS: A brief battery of cognitive measures may be useful in evaluating individuals for job selection. Different measures are related to job-related criteria depending on task and group evaluated, although it was not possible to identify a reduced battery for one task. The specific cognitive abilities related to participants\u27 success have implications for task and interface design for the elderly population

    The economic implications of HLA matching in cadaveric renal transplantation.

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    Abstract Background: The potential economic effects of the allocation of cadaveric kidneys on the basis of tissue-matching criteria are controversial. We analyzed the economic costs associated with the transplantation of cadaveric kidneys with various numbers of HLA mismatches and examined the potential economic benefits of a local, as compared with a national, system designed to minimize HLA mismatches between donor and recipient in first cadaveric renal transplantations. Methods: All data were supplied by the U.S. Renal Data System. Data on all payments made by Medicare from 1991 through 1997 for the care of recipients of a first cadaveric renal transplant were analyzed according to the number of HLA-A, B, and DR mismatches between donor and recipient and the duration of cold ischemia before transplantation. Results: Average Medicare payments for renal-transplant recipients in the three years after transplantation increased from 60,436perpatientforfullyHLAÔłĺmatchedkidneys(thosewithnoHLAÔłĺA,B,orDRmismatches)to60,436 per patient for fully HLA-matched kidneys (those with no HLA-A, B, or DR mismatches) to 80,807 for kidneys with six HLA mismatches between donor and recipient, a difference of 34 percent (P\u3c0.001). By three years after transplantation, the average Medicare payments were 64,119fortransplantationsofkidneyswithlessthan12hoursofcoldÔłĺischemiatimeand64,119 for transplantations of kidneys with less than 12 hours of cold-ischemia time and 74,997 for those with more than 36 hours (P\u3c0.001). In simulations, the assignment of cadaveric kidneys to recipients by a method that minimized HLA mismatching within a local geographic area (i.e., within one of the approximately 50 organ-procurement organizations, which cover widely varying geographic areas) produced the largest cost savings ($4,290 per patient over a period of three years) and the largest improvements in the graft-survival rate (2.3 percent) when the potential costs of longer cold-ischemia time were considered. Conclusions: Transplantation of better-matched cadaveric kidneys could have substantial economic advantages. In our simulations, HLA-based allocation of kidneys at the local level produced the largest estimated cost savings, when the duration of cold ischemia was taken into account. No additional savings were estimated to result from a national allocation program, because the additional costs of longer cold-ischemia time were greater than the advantages of optimizing HLA matching

    Toxicity and pathophysiology of palytoxin congeners after intraperitoneal and aerosol administration in rats

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    Author Posting. ┬ę The Author(s), 2018. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Toxicon 150 (2018): 235-250, doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.06.067.Preparations of palytoxin (PLTX, derived from Japanese Palythoa tuberculosa) and the congeners 42-OH-PLTX (from Hawaiian P. toxica) and ovatoxin-a (isolated from a Japanese strain of Ostreopsis ovata), as well as a 50:50 mixture of PLTX and 42-OH-PLTX derived from Hawaiian P. tuberculosa were characterized as to their concentration, composition, in-vitro potency and interaction with an anti-PLTX monoclonal antibody (mAb), after which they were evaluated for lethality and pathophysiological effects by intraperitoneal (IP) and aerosol administration to rats. Once each preparation was characterized as to its toxin composition by LC-HRMS and normalized to a total PLTX/OVTX concentration using HPLC-UV, all four preparations showed similar potency towards mouse erythrocytes in the erythrocyte hemolysis assay and interactions with the anti-PLTX mAb. The IP LD50 values derived from these experiments (1-3 ╬╝g/kg for all) were consistent with published values, although some differences from the published literature were seen. The aerosol LD50 values (.03-.06 ╬╝g/kg) confirmed the exquisite potency of PLTX suggested by the literature. The pathophysiological effects of the different toxin preparations by IP and aerosol administration were similar, albeit with some differences. Most commonly affected tissues were the lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, salivary glands, and adrenal glands. Despite some differences, these results suggest commonalities in potency and mechanism of action among these PLTX congeners.This work was supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, through the Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense, Contract number CB10396. Additional support to DMA and DLK was provided by National Science Foundation (Grant OCE-1314642) and National Institutes of Health (NIEHS-1P50-ES021923-01) through the Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health
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