6 research outputs found


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    The off-road vehicles are a necessary in today’s world for rescuing operations, military, racing and farming applications creating a huge demand for the AllTerrain Vehicle in the automobile market. The market size is estimated to be worth about $ 9.2bn (₹594Cr) by 2020. The drive-train of an All-Terrain Vehicle(ATV) is one of the major component in propelling the vehicle. Continuously Variable Transmission(CVT) coupled to a constant reduction gearbox, provides ease of driveability and the required high torque and top speed. In case of an ATV, high torque and high-top speed is the requirement, since it should be able to negotiate various terrains such as bumps, hill-climb, etc. Several authors have discussed, methods in designing CVT components of commercial vehicles which run on tarmac, and only few researchers have discussed methods to develop a CVT for an ATV requiring high velocity and high torque. The aim is to develop a lightweight, compact CVT system with high torque and top speed without any compromise on reliability. The force balance method is used to develop the analytical model. This model is used to design the various components of the CVT operating with gear ratios between 4:1 to 0.7:1. The structural analysis of all the CVT components are carried out. The designed and fabricated CVT components were then assembled on the ATV and performance studies were done by testing in various terrain conditions such as bumps, drops, slush and pulling weight from zero speed. All the components performed well, with no failures in all these conditions

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Response surface based optimization of system variables for liquid chromatographic analysis of candesartan cilexetil

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    A statistical optimization method was successfully employed to study the effect of system variables on the chromatographic analysis of candesartan cilexetil. The effect of simultaneously varying the flow rate, temperature and concentration of acetonitrile in the mobile phase in water (0.05% O-phosphoric acid (0.05% OPA)) was studied to optimize the method to obtain excellent chromatographic responses. The optimum conditions were determined with the help of response surface methodology (RSM) using Plackett–Burman designs. From the response surface graphs, the optimum regions were selected to be −1, +1 and +1 for flow rate (0.8 ml/min), temperature (25 °C) and concentration of acetonitrile in water (0.05% OPA) (80%, v/v), respectively. Pareto ranking indicated that the most important variable affecting the selected responses was temperature. Linearity was found in the range of 10 of 50 μg/ml, with a significantly high correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.9989). The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.12 and 0.33 μg/ml, respectively. The developed method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, and specificity. The method was successfully used to analyze a tablet formulation to assess the chromatographic performance, and it was found to be 99.03%, with a standard deviation of ±0.04

    Effect of Injectable Platelet-Rich Fibrin with a Nano-Hydroxyapatite Bone Graft on the Treatment of a Grade II Furcation Defect

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    Background: Periodontal diseases lead to bone loss, crestal defects and even loss of the tooth, which also further makes it difficult to replace the tooth. Autogenous bone grafts are considered the gold standard in bone regenerative procedures. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the bone regenerative effects of i-PRF (Injectable- Platelet-rich fibrin) with a bone graft and a bone graft alone in mandibular grade II furcation defects over a period of 9 months. Method: This was a comparative study of 12 participants, who were randomly selected and grouped into two groups: test and control. Following phase I therapy, both groups were subjected to open flap debridement. In the test group, after debridement, a nano-hydroxyapatite bone graft mixed with i-PRF was inserted, whereas in the control group only a nano-hydroxyapatite bone graft was inserted. The clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), horizontal probing depth (HPD) and vertical probing depth (VPD) were recorded at baseline, 3 months, 6 months and 9 months following the surgery. The bone area fill (BAF) was assessed using intraoral periapical radiographs (IOPARs) taken at baseline and 9 months after surgery. Results: At the baseline, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested parameters. After 9 months all the clinical parameters, PI, GI, PPD, CAL, HPD and VPD as well as radiographic bone fill showed a significant increase in both the groups (p < 0.05) (PI-TGr; CGr–VPD—3.5 ± 0.54 to 0.66 ± 0.51; 3.3 ± 0.81 to 2 ± 0.63/BAF—2.9 ± 0.88 to 5.6 ± 1.10; 3.4 ± 1.39 to 3.9 ± 1.4). On comparison the test group showed better results for each clinical parameter. Conclusion: The results showed increased improvement in clinical conditions in both groups, although better results were seen in the group where i-PRF with a nano-HA bone graft was used in the furcation defect