9 research outputs found

    Oligofructose alone and in combination with 2'fucosyllactose induces physiologically relevant changes in Îł-aminobutyric acid and organic acid production compared to sole 2'fucosyllactose supplementation: an in vitro study

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    We explored the potential for the prebiotic oligofructose and prebiotic candidate 2'fucosyllactose, alone and in combination (50:50 blend) to induce physiologically relevant increases in neurotransmitter (γ-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, tryptophan, and dopamine) and organic acid (acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and succinate) production as well as microbiome changes using anaerobic pH-controlled in vitro batch culture fermentations over 48 h. Changes in organic acid and neurotransmitter production were assessed by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography and, bacterial enumeration using fluorescence in situ hybridization, respectively. Both oligofructose and oligofructose/2'fucosyllactose combination fermentations induced physiologically relevant concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and succinate at completion (all P ≤ .05). A high degree of heterogeneity was seen amongst donors in both neurotransmitter and organic acid production in sole 2'FL fermentations suggesting a large responder/nonresponder status exists. Large increases in Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides numbers were detected in oligofructose fermentation, smallest increases being detected in 2'fucosyllactose fermentation. Bacterial numbers in the combined oligofructose/2'fucosyllactose fermentation were closer to that of sole oligofructose. Our results indicate that oligofructose and oligofructose/2'fucosyllactose in combination have the potential to induce physiologically relevant increases in γ-aminobutyric and organic acid production along with offsetting the heterogenicity seen in response to sole 2'fucosyllactose supplementation

    Inulin‐type fructans and short‐chain fructooligosaccharides—their role within the food industry as fat and sugar replacers and texture modifiers—what needs to be considered!

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    Inulin and oligofructose are classes of prebiotics belonging to a group of nondigestible carbohydrates referred to as inulin‐type fructans. While short‐chain fructooligosaccharides are enzymatically synthesized from the hydrolysis and transglycosylation of sucrose. Inulin‐type fructans and short‐chain fructooligosaccharides act as carbon sources for selective pathways supporting digestive health including altering the composition of the gut microbiota along with improving transit time. Due to their physicochemical properties, inulin‐type fructans and short‐chain fructooligosaccharides have been widely used in the food industry as partial replacements for both fat and sugar. Yet, levels of replacement need to be carefully considered as it may result in changes to physical and sensory properties that could be detected by consumers. Furthermore, it has been reported depending on the processing parameters used during production that inulin‐type fructans and short‐chain fructooligosaccharides may or may not undergo structural alterations. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of inulin‐type fructans and short‐chain fructooligosaccharides within the food industry as fat and sugar replacers and texture modifiers, their impact on final sensory properties, and to what degree processing parameters are likely to impact their functional properties

    Food for thought! Inulin-type fructans: does the food matrix matter?

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    Food matrices can be described as the final composition of a food product which results from complex interactions between compounds found within different ingredients and the processing parameters used in production. These factors, not only impact on the final structure of a product, but also have the potential to alter both the structural integrity and bioavailability of potentially beneficial compounds present, for example, dietary fibres. As a result, there is growing curiosity amongst the scientific community on whether the food matrix may impact on the prebiotic efficacy of inulin-type fructans. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore previous food-based inulin-type fructan supplementation studies to determine whether the food matrix directly impacts on their prebiotic efficacy. Our working hypothesis is that other potentially prebiotic ingredients and components present within the food may alter inulin-type fructans prebiotic effect

    Determining the metabolic fate of human milk oligosaccharides: it may just be more complex than you think?

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    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a class of structurally diverse and complex unconjugated glycans present in breast milk, which act as selective substrates for several genera of select microbes and inhibit the colonisation of pathogenic bacteria. Yet, not all infants are breastfed, instead being fed with formula milks which may or may not contain HMOs. Currently, formula milks only possess two HMOs: 2′-fucosyllactose (2’FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), which have been suggested to be similarly effective as human breast milk in supporting age-related growth. However, the in vivo evidence regarding their ability to beneficially reduce respiratory infections along with altering the composition of an infant’s microbiota is limited at best. Thus, this review will explore the concept of HMOs and their metabolic fate, and summarise previous in vitro and in vivo clinical data regarding HMOs, with specific regard to 2’FL and LNnT

    In vitro effects of synbiotic fermentation on the canine faecal microbiota.

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    Stirred, pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures were used to investigate the in vitro effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) alone or combined with the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum 02 450B on the canine faecal microbiota of three different donors. GOS supported the growth of B. bifidum 02 450B throughout the fermentation. Quantitative analysis of bacterial populations by FISH revealed significant increases in Bifidobacterium spp. counts (Bif164) and a concomitant decrease in Clostridium histolyticum counts (Chis150) in the synbiotic-containing vessels compared with the controls and GOS vessels. Vessels containing probiotic alone displayed a transient increase in Bifidobacterium spp. and a transient decrease in Bacteroides spp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that GOS elicited similar alterations in the microbial profiles of the three in vitro runs. However, the synbiotic did not alter the microbial diversity of the three runs to the same extent as GOS alone. Nested PCR using universal primers, followed by bifidobacterial-specific primers illustrated low bifidobacterial diversity in dogs, which did not change drastically during the in vitro fermentation. This study illustrates that the canine faecal microbiota can be modulated in vitro by GOS supplementation and that GOS can sustain the growth of B. bifidum 02 450B in a synbiotic combination

    Oligofructose, 2'fucosyllactose and β-glucan in combination induce specific changes in microbial composition and short-chain fatty acid production compared to sole supplementation

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    In this study, we explored the effects that the prebiotic inulin-type fructans, and prebiotic candidates: 2'fucosyllactose and β-glucan from barley, singular and in combination had on microbial load, microbiome profile, and short-chain fatty acid production. This was carried out as a prescreening tool to determine combinations that could be taken forward for use in a human intervention trial. Effects of inulin-type fructans, 2'fucosyllactose and β-glucan from barley in singular and combination on microbial load and profile and short-chain fatty acid production (SCFA) was conducted using in vitro batch culture fermentation over 48 h. Changes in microbial load and profile were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization flow cytometry (FISH-FLOW) and 16S rRNA sequencing, and changes in SCFA via gas chromatography. All substrates generated changes in microbial load and profile, achieving peak microbial load at 8 h fermentation with the largest changes in profile across all substrates in Bifidobacterium (Q < 0.05). This coincided with significant increases in acetate observed throughout fermentation (Q < 0.05). In comparison to sole supplementation combinations of oligofructose, β-glucan and 2'fuscosyllactose induced significant increases in both propionate and butyrate producing bacteria (Roseburia and Faecalibacterium praunitzii), and concentrations of propionate and butyrate, the latter being maintained until the end of fermentation (all Q < 0.05). Combinations of oligofructose, with β-glucan and 2'fucosyllactose induced selective changes in microbial combination and SCFA namely Roseburia, F. praunitzii, propionate and butyrate compared to sole supplementation. [Abstract copyright: © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Applied Microbiology International.

    A double-blind, placebo controlled human study investigating the effects of coffee derived manno-oligosaccharides on the faecal microbiota of a healthy adult population.

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    The aims of this study were to assess the impact of coffee derived mannooligosaccharides on the faecal microbiota of a healthy UK based population. Methods and Results: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover human intervention study was conducted. Volunteers were assigned, 3g MOS, 5g MOS and placebo coffee preparations, to consume daily over a 3 wks, followed by a 2 wk washout period. Faecal samples were collected, and microbial population characterised using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Short-chain and branched-chain fatty acid profiles were obtained by gas chromatography. All treatments led to significant lactobacilli increases (placebo, p < 0.001; 3g, p = 0.04; 5g, p=0.04). The 3g treatment led to a significant bifidobacteria increase (p=0.001). Significantly less iso-valerate was found in faeces following 3g MOS daily (p=0.05). Conclusions: The 3g dose of MOS led to a potentially beneficial shift in the faecal microbiota. MOS was therefore confirmed to be a prebiotic at 3g dose. Significance and Impact of Study: This study provides confirmation of a new novel prebiotic, that can be considered for incorporation into a wider variety of food products, to provide different selective and nutritional properties

    Response of porcine intestinal in vitro organ culture tissues following exposure to Lactobacillus plantarum JC1 and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344.

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    The development of novel intervention strategies for the control of zoonoses caused by bacteria such as Salmonella spp. in livestock requires appropriate experimental models to assess their suitability. Here, a novel porcine intestinal in vitro organ culture (IVOC) model utilizing cell crown (CC) technology (CCIVOC) (Scaffdex) was developed. The CCIVOC model was employed to investigate the characteristics of association of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 with porcine intestinal tissue following exposure to a Lactobacillus plantarum strain. The association of bacteria to host cells was examined by light microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) after appropriate treatments and staining, while changes in the proteome of porcine jejunal tissues were investigated using quantitative label-free proteomics. Exposure of porcine intestinal mucosal tissues to L. plantarum JC1 did not reduce the numbers of S. Typhimurium bacteria associating to the tissues but was associated with significant (P < 0.005) reductions in the percentages of areas of intestinal IVOC tissues giving positive staining results for acidic mucins. Conversely, the quantity of neutrally charged mucins present within the goblet cells of the IVOC tissues increased significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, tubulin- was expressed at high levels following inoculation of jejunal IVOC tissues with L. plantarum. Although L. plantarum JC1 did not reduce the association of S. Typhimurium strain SL1344 to the jejunal IVOC tissues, detection of increased acidic mucin secretion, host cytoskeletal rearrangements, and proteins involved in the porcine immune response demonstrated that this strain of L. plantarum may contribute to protecting the pig from infections by S. Typhimurium or other pathogens
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