252 research outputs found

    Sectoral Price Effects of the Malaysian Economy

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    The interdependence among industries makes prices of a commodity become costs to other commodities. The structural matrix of an economy may indicate such interdependence. This paper- analyses the effects on Malaysian sectoral prices of changes in the salary and wages, commodity taxes, non-wage incomes and intermediate imports. It further examines whether the price changes are significantly due to the volume of added value and industrial linkages. The results affirm the above question

    Emerging Next Generation Solar Cells Route to High Efficiency and Low Cost

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    Generation of clean energy is one of the main challenges of the 21st century. Solar energy is the most abundantly available renewable energy source which would be supplying more than 50 of the global electricity demand in 2100. Solar cells are used to convert light energy into electrical energy directly with an appeal that it does not generate any harmful bi products, like greenhouse gasses. The manufacturing of solar cells is actually based on the types of semiconducting or non semiconducting materials used and commercial maturity. From the very beginning of the terrestrial use of Solar Cells, efficiency and costs are the main focusing areas of research. The definition of so called emerging technologies sometimes described as including any technology capable of overcoming the Shockley-Queisser limit of power conversion efficiency 33.7 percent for a single junction device. In this paper, few promising materials for solar cells are discussed including their structural morphology, electrical and optical properties. The excellent state of the art technology, advantages and potential research issues yet to be explored are also pointed out. Md. Samiul Islam Sadek | Dr. M Junaebur Rashid | Dr. Zahid Hasan Mahmood "Emerging Next Generation Solar Cells: Route to High Efficiency and Low Cost" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-1 | Issue-4 , June 201

    NFT-Based Blockchain-Oriented Security Framework for Metaverse Applications

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    The Metaverse is rapidly evolving, bringing us closer to its imminent reality. However, the widespread adoption of this new automated technology poses significant research challenges in terms of authenticity, integrity, interoperability, and efficiency. These challenges originate from the core technologies underlying the Metaverse and are exacerbated by its complex nature. As a solution to these challenges, this paper presents a novel framework based on Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs). The framework employs the Proof-of-Stake consensus algorithm, a blockchain-based technology, for data transaction, validation, and resource management. PoS efficiently consume energy and provide a streamlined validation approach instead of resource-intensive mining. This ability makes PoS an ideal candidate for Metaverse applications. By combining NFTs for user authentication and PoS for data integrity, enhanced transaction throughput, and improved scalability, the proposed blockchain mechanism demonstrates noteworthy advantages. Through security analysis, experimental and simulation results, it is established that the NFT-based approach coupled with the PoS algorithm is secure and efficient for Metaverse applications.Comment: 10 page

    Influence of Ethical Concerns on Advertising among Youth: A Study of Pakistan

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    In today’s environment, it has been noticed that the major part of a company’s capital is spend on advertisement of their products. The present study tries to investigate the ethical problems that are found in advertisements. The objective of this study is to evaluate ethical issues, ethical misconducts in celebrity endorser’s and ethical problems in content and message of advertisements. The data was gathered through questionnaire from 12 universities of twin cities i.e. Islamabad and Rawalpindi of Pakistan. The SPSS software is used to conduct reliability, validity and regression analysis. The results of study reveal that advertising messages ethics and advertising appeal have significant relationship with advertising effectiveness. The statistical result also showed that there is significant effect of advertising message with advertising effectiveness. The findings of study reveal that celebrity endorser’s ethics have insignificant effect on advertising ethics. From the result of this study it is shown that among Pakistani younger segment, there is little value of what celebrity endorser own past is and they are more inclined towards what are they selling. The results of advertising appeal and advertising message shows that people rejects the current practices of Pakistani media and advertisers and they are of the opinion that marketer and advertiser should be more ethical and follow the cultural values of Pakistani society. Keywords: Advertisement Ethics, Endorser’s Credibility, Consumer Behavio

    Effect of Ethical Issues on Advertising Effectiveness: A Study of Pakistan

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    In today’s environment, it has been noticed that the major part of a company’s capital is spend on advertisement of their products. The present study tries to investigate the ethical problems that are found in advertisements. The objective of this study is to evaluate ethical issues, ethical misconducts in celebrity endorser’s and ethical problems in content and message of advertisements. The data was gathered through questionnaire from 12 universities of twin cities i.e. Islamabad and Rawalpindi of Pakistan. The SPSS software is used to conduct reliability, validity and regression analysis. The results of study reveal that advertising messages ethics and advertising appeal have significant relationship with advertising effectiveness. The statistical result also showed that there is significant effect of advertising message with advertising effectiveness. The findings of study reveal that celebrity endorser’s ethics have insignificant effect on advertising ethics. From the result of this study it is shown that among Pakistani younger segment, there is little value of what celebrity endorser own past is and they are more inclined towards what are they selling. The results of advertising appeal and advertising message shows that people rejects the current practices of Pakistani media and advertisers and they are of the opinion that marketer and advertiser should be more ethical and follow the cultural values of Pakistani society. Keywords: Advertisement Ethics, Endorser’s Credibility, Consumer Behavio

    A Machine Learning based Empirical Evaluation of Cyber Threat Actors High Level Attack Patterns over Low level Attack Patterns in Attributing Attacks

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    Cyber threat attribution is the process of identifying the actor of an attack incident in cyberspace. An accurate and timely threat attribution plays an important role in deterring future attacks by applying appropriate and timely defense mechanisms. Manual analysis of attack patterns gathered by honeypot deployments, intrusion detection systems, firewalls, and via trace-back procedures is still the preferred method of security analysts for cyber threat attribution. Such attack patterns are low-level Indicators of Compromise (IOC). They represent Tactics, Techniques, Procedures (TTP), and software tools used by the adversaries in their campaigns. The adversaries rarely re-use them. They can also be manipulated, resulting in false and unfair attribution. To empirically evaluate and compare the effectiveness of both kinds of IOC, there are two problems that need to be addressed. The first problem is that in recent research works, the ineffectiveness of low-level IOC for cyber threat attribution has been discussed intuitively. An empirical evaluation for the measure of the effectiveness of low-level IOC based on a real-world dataset is missing. The second problem is that the available dataset for high-level IOC has a single instance for each predictive class label that cannot be used directly for training machine learning models. To address these problems in this research work, we empirically evaluate the effectiveness of low-level IOC based on a real-world dataset that is specifically built for comparative analysis with high-level IOC. The experimental results show that the high-level IOC trained models effectively attribute cyberattacks with an accuracy of 95% as compared to the low-level IOC trained models where accuracy is 40%.Comment: 20 page

    Evaluation of Manual Skill Degradation Due to Automation in Apparel Manufacturing

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    Manual skill degradation is a common problem that production managers face in assembly lines due to frequent changes in batch styles. Since the advancement in automated machinery, reliance on manual machines has been reduced. However, due to the high cost of fully automated machinery, it is still not available on a large scale in apparel manufacturing setups as most of the setups are in developing countries. Few related studies regarding the effects of automation on manual skills have been conducted in aviation and other emerging technological advanced fields; little focus was given on the effects of automation in apparel manufacturing. This exploratory study examines automation-induced performance degradation in the apparel production line. Sixty-seven sewing machine operators were initially trained on manual sewing machines to learn a complex production operation. Then, participants were divided randomly into three groups to experience varied amount of automation exposure. The manual machine group (MMG)kept working on the manual machines after the initial training and skill development. In contrast, the automation group (AG) shifted to automated pocket setting machines after skill development. Finally, the refresher training group (RTG) rotated between manual and automated machines after the skill development. The skill retrieval assessment was carried out after six weeks in the production line. The result of an independent t-test showed no significant differences among performances of the three groups after the initial training stage. A significant increase in the average single cycle time (ASCT) and decrease in the right-first-time percent (RFT %) was found in the AG while the ASCT decreased and the RFT% increased among the MMG after the retention interval. The RTG almost maintained its production output and the ASCT due to refresher training drills. Relevance to industry: Production managers usually maintain a skill set among the operators to run the production line smoothly. Therefore, capacity development drills of sewing operators are essential to maintain an efficient required skill set.DFG, 414044773, Open Access Publizieren 2021 - 2022 / Technische Universität Berli

    MinHop (MH) Transmission strategy to optimized performance of epidemic routing protocol

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    Delay tolerant network aims to provide the network architecture in environments where end-to-end path may never exist for long duration of time Furthermore dynamic topology changes limited buffer space and non stable connectivity make routing a challenging issue The research contribution regarding DTN routing protocols can be categorized in to single and multi copy strategies A single copy strategy makes less use of network resources but suffers from long delay and less delivery probability Multi copy schemes enjoy better delivery probability and minimum delivery delay at the cost of heavy use of network resource Moreover DTN nodes operate under short contact duration and limited transmission bandwidth Therefore it is not possible for a node to transmit all messages from its forwarding queue Hence the order at which the messages are forwarded becomes very vital In this paper we propose a forwarding queue mode named MinHop We prove through simulations that the proposed policy performs better then FIFO in terms of delivery probability overhead message drop and rela

    Relationship between civic engagement and level of people's participation in local government

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    This paper attempts to identify the relationship between civic engagements of local people and level of their participation in local government of Torbat-Heydarieh, Iran. The paper is based on the study carried out among 400 citizens of Torbat-Heydarieh. The analysis of data uses Pearson correlation to determine the relationship between variables involved. The findings reveal that two levels of participation (tokenism and citizen-power) have positive and significant relationship with civic engagement, while there is no significant relationship between non-participation level and civic engagement. The findings of the study imply that those respondents who engage more in civic activities would participate in high level of participation in local government

    Functional and radiological outcomes of atypical femur fractures among elderly in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Objective: To assess the functional and radiological outcomes in a unique class of fractures i.e. atypical femur fractures and to assess the effects of osteoblastic agents in healing.Methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. All patients with atypical femur fractures who were surgically managed with intramedullary nailing from January, 2013 to June, 2017 and with a follow-up till December 2019, were included in the study. Radiological outcomes were expressed as mean healing time and functional outcomes were recorded as mean Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) score.Results: A total of twenty-four patients were included in this study. Mean age of patients was 65.8 ± 8 years. Mean healing time was 10 ±3.2 months post operatively. Two patients underwent redo procedures. No other complications like paresthesia or weakness was observed in any patients. All the patients reported a good score on SMFA ranging from 19% to 31%.Conclusion: Intra-medullary nailing shows a promising result in treatment of atypical femur fractures. Use of post-operative osteoblastic supplements showed statistically significant results with early healing time (p=0.008 [95% CI])
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