30 research outputs found

    Do cerebrovascular risk factors impact the clinical expression of idiopathic isolated adult-onset dystonia?

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    Background: Although acquired dystonia may develop following ischaemic/haemorrhagic stroke, the relationship between cerebrovascular disease and idiopathic dystonia has been poorly investigated. This cross sectional study aimed at evaluating the impact of cerebrovascular risk factors on the clinical expression of idiopathic adult onset dystonia (IAOD), with reference to dystonia localization and dystonia-associated features. Methods: Data were obtained from the Italian Dystonia Registry. Patients with IAOD were stratified into two groups according to the presence of diabetes mellitus and/or arterial hypertension and/or dyslipidemia and/or heart disease. The two groups were compared for demographic features, dystonia phenotype, and dystonia-associated features (sensory trick, tremor, eye symptoms in blepharospasm, and neck pain in cervical dystonia). Results: A total of 1108 patients participated into the study. Patients who reported one cerebrovascular factor or more (n = 555) had higher age and longer disease duration than patients who did not. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, blepharospasm was the only localization, and sensory trick was the only dystonia-associated feature that was significantly associated with cerebrovascular risk factors. Linear regression analysis showed that the strength of the association between cerebrovascular factors and blepharospasm/sensory trick increased with increasing the number of cerebrovascular factors per patient. Conclusions: Results of the present study showed that cerebrovascular risk factors may be associated with specific features of IAOD that is development of blepharospasm and sensory trick. Further studies are needed to better understand the meaning and the mechanisms underlying this association

    Protective Role of Natural Compounds under Radiation-Induced Injury

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    In recent years, evidence has shown the potential therapeutic effects of different natural compounds for the prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced mucositis (RIOM). RIOM represents one of the most frequent side effects associated with anti-neoplastic treatments affecting patients' quality of life and treatment response due to radiation therapy discontinuation. The innate radio-protective ability of natural products obtained from plants is in part due to the numerous antioxidants possessed as a part of their normal secondary metabolic processes. However, oxygen presence is a key point for radiation efficacy on cancer cells. The aim of this review is to describe the most recent evidence on radiation-induced injury and the emerging protective role of natural compounds in preventing and treating this specific damage without compromising treatment efficacy

    Obligatory Role for Endothelial Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Caveolae Internalization in Catestatin-Dependent eNOS Activation

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    The chromogranin-A peptide catestatin modulates a wide range of processes, such as cardiovascular functions, innate immunity, inflammation, and metabolism. We recently found that the cardiac antiadrenergic action of catestatin requires a PI3K-dependent NO release from endothelial cells, although the receptor involved is yet to be identified. In the present work, based on the cationic properties of catestatin, we tested the hypothesis of its interaction with membrane heparan sulphate proteoglycans, resulting in the activation of a caveolae-dependent endocytosis. Experiments were performed on bovine aortic endothelial cells. Endocytotic vesicles trafficking was quantified by confocal microscopy using a water-soluble membrane dye; catestatin colocalization with heparan sulphate proteoglycans and caveolin 1 internalization were studied by fluorimetric measurements in live cells. Modulation of the catestatin-dependent eNOS activation was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblot analysis. Our results demonstrate that catestatin (5 nM) colocalizes with heparan sulphate proteoglycans and induces a remarkable increase in the caveolae-dependent endocytosis and caveolin 1 internalization, which were significantly reduced by both heparinase and wortmannin. Moreover, catestatin was unable to induce Ser1179 eNOS phosphorylation after pretreatments with heparinase and methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Taken together, these results highlight the obligatory role for proteoglycans and caveolae internalization in the catestatin-dependent eNOS activation in endothelial cells