28 research outputs found

    The Anti-Dermatophyte Activities of Some Plant Extracts Against Trichophyton Mentagrophytes and Microsporum Canis

    Get PDF
    The activity of ethanol and aqueous of plants extracts of (Quercus aegilops, Hypericum perforatum, Lawsonia inermis and Nicotiana tabaciplants) were tested on the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytesand Microsporum canis.Extract from the galls of Quercus aegilops was significantly the most effective in comparison to other plant extracts used. Among the ethanol extract concentration, we found that 5 mg/ml was more potent, that significantly inhibit the mycelium growth of T. mentagrophytes and M. canis completely. We found the aqueous extract at concentration (10, 15, 20, 25 mg/ml) significantly inhibit the mycelium growth of T. mentagrophytes and M. canis completely

    Aflatoxins

    Get PDF
    The aflatoxin producing fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius, although they are also produced by other species of Aspergillus as well as by Emericella spp.(Telemorph). There are many types of aflatoxins, but the four main ones are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2, while aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and M2 (AFM2) are the hydroxylated metabolites of AFB1 and AFB2. Aflatoxin B1, which is a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, which presumptively causes cancer by inducing DNA, adducts leading to genetic changes in target liver cells. Cytochrome-P450 enzymes to the reactive intermediate AFB1‚Äď8, 9 epoxide (AFBO) which binds to liver cell DNA, resulting in DNA adducts, metabolize AFB1 Ingestion of contaminated food is the main source of exposure to aflatoxins, which adversely affect the health of both humans and animals. The compounds can cause acute or chronic toxic effects of a teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic or hepatotoxic character. You can reduce your aflatoxin exposure by buying only major commercial brands of food and by discarding that look moldy, discolored, or shriveled

    Antifungal synergic activity of essential olive oil and alcoholic turmeric extracts against isolates from the dried grapes raisins

    Get PDF
    Fungi are responsible for a wide variety of harm to humans, including food spoilage and infections. Using chemicals to restrict fungal development or infections has negative repercussions, such as human health dangers from the chemical applications and rising antifungal-drug resistance, so this study aimed to use medicinal plants and their extracts as an alternative method to restrict fungal growth. Ten isolates of the genus Aspergillus were identified from the fruits of dried grapes (raisins) of all kinds (Iraqi black raisins, Iranian yellow raisins, and brown raisins) at the species level using three ‚Äď differential media: Czapek Yeast Extract Agar( CYA), Malt Extract Agar( MEA), and 25%¬†Glycerol nitrate agar (G25N) incubated in 5, 25 and 37 ¬ļC. Aspergillus niger was the most common isolated species. The number of A. niger isolates reached seven from all types of dried grapes, while A. flavus recorded three isolates from black raisins and brown raisins. Aspergillus Flavus Parasiticus Agar (AFPA) was used to detect the ability of A. flavus isolates to produce aflatoxin at 25-30 ¬ļC for one week. Alcoholic extract of turmeric showed a significant inhibitory effect on the colony diameter of both A. flavus and A. niger isolated from the fruit of Iraqi black raisins with an inhibition rate of 86.6% and 68.8 %, respectively, at 4 mg/ ml concentration. The mixture of turmeric and essential olive oil gave a distinct inhibitory effect, reaching a 100% inhibition rate from the lowest to highest concentration for both A. niger and A. flavus

    Machine Learning to Quantitate Neutrophil NETosis

    Get PDF
    We introduce machine learning (ML) to perform classifcation and quantitation of images of nuclei from human blood neutrophils. Here we assessed the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) using free, open source software to accurately quantitate neutrophil NETosis, a recently discovered process involved in multiple human diseases. CNNs achieved \u3e94% in performance accuracy in diferentiating NETotic from non-NETotic cells and vastly facilitated dose-response analysis and screening of the NETotic response in neutrophils from patients. Using only features learned from nuclear morphology, CNNs can distinguish between NETosis and necrosis and between distinct NETosis signaling pathways, making them a precise tool for NETosis detection. Furthermore, by using CNNs and tools to determine object dispersion, we uncovered diferences in NETotic nuclei clustering between major NETosis pathways that is useful in understanding NETosis signaling events. Our study also shows that neutrophils from patients with sickle cell disease were unresponsive to one of two major NETosis pathways. Thus, we demonstrate the design, performance, and implementation of ML tools for rapid quantitative and qualitative cell analysis in basic science

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Global economic burden of unmet surgical need for appendicitis