148 research outputs found

    Thermal annealing behaviour on electrical properties of Pd/Ru Schottky contacts on n-type GaN

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    We have investigated the electrical properties of Pd/Ru Schottky contacts on n-GaN as a function of annealing temperature by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The Schottky barrier height of the as-deposited Pd/Ru contact is found to be 0.67 eV (I-V) and 0.79 eV (C-V), respectively. Measurements showed that the Schottky barrier height increased from 0.68 eV (I-V) and 0.80 eV (C-V) to 0.80 eV (I-V) and 0.96 eV (C-V) as the annealing temperature is varied from 200 °C to 300 °C. Upon annealing at 400 °C and 500 °C, the Schottky barrier height decreased to 0.73 eV (I-V) and 0.85 eV (C-V) and 0.72 eV (I-V) and 0.84 eV (C-V), respectively. It is noted that the barrier height further decreased to 0.59 eV (I-V) and 0.72 eV (C-V) when the contact is annealed at 600 °C. The change of Schottky barrier heights and ideality factors with annealing temperature may be due to the formation of interfacial compounds at the Ru/Pd/n-GaN interface. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/2788

    Electrical Transport Characteristics and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy of Ni/V/n-InP Schottky Barrier Diodes

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    We report on the temperature-dependent electrical characteristics and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) of the Ni/V/n-InP Schottky diodes in the temperature range of 180-420 K. Current density - voltage (J-V) characteristics of these diodes have been analyzed on the basis of thermionic emission theory with Gaussian distribution model of barrier height. The calculated Schottky barrier height (bo) and ideality factor (n) of Ni/V Schottky contact is in the range of 0.39 eV and 2.36 at 180 K, and 0.69 eV and 1.27 at 420 K, respectively. It is observed that the zero-bias barrier height increases while ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature. A bo versus q/2kT plot is drawn to obtain evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights, and values of = 0.95 eV and 0 = 128 eV for the mean barrier height and standard deviation. A modified Richardson plot gives (T=0)= 0.98 eV and Richardson constant (A*) = 7.068 A K – 2cm – 2. The discrepancy between Schottky barrier height (SBHs) estimated from J-V and C-V measurements is also discussed. Thus, it is concluded that the temperature dependence of J-V characteristics of the SBHs on n-InP can be explained on the basis of themionic emission mechanism with Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights. DLTS results showed that two deep levels are identified (E1 and E2) in as-grown sample having activation energies of 0.29 ± 0.01 and 0.69 ± 0.02 with capture cross-section 3.29 × 10 – 15 cm2 and 5.85 × 10 – 17 cm2 respectively. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/2777

    Electrical transport characteristics of Pd/V/N-InP Schottky diode from I-V-T and C-V-T measurements

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    The temperature dependence of current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the Pd/V contacts on undoped n-type InP Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have been systematically investigated in the temperature range of 200-400 K. The transition metal palladium (Pd) is used as a second contact layer because it has high work function, it reacts with InP at low temperatures and improved contact morphology. The ideality factor (n) and zero-bias barrier height are found to be strongly temperature dependent and while the zero-bias barrier height Φbo (I-V) increases, the ideality factor n decreases with increasing temperature. The experimental values of BH and n for the devices are calculated as 0.48 eV (I-V), 0.85 eV (C-V) and 4.87 at 200 K, 0.65 eV (I-V), 0.69 (C-V) eV and 1.58 at 400 K respectively. The I-V characteristics are analyzed on the basis of thermionic emission (TE) theory and the assumption of Gaussian distribution of barrier heights due to barrier inhomogeneities that prevail at the metal-semiconductor interface. The zero-bias barrier height Φbo versus 1/2kT plot has been drawn to obtain the evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the heights and the values of φ=0.89 eV and σ0= 145 meV for the mean barrier height and standard deviation. The conventional Richardson plot exhibits non-linearity with activation energy of 0.53 eV and the Richardson constant value of 4.25 × 10– 6 Acm– 2 K– 2. From the C-V characteristics, measured at 1 MHz the capacitance was determined to increase with increasing temperature. C-V measurements have resulted in higher barrier heights than those obtained from I-V measurements. As a result, it can be concluded that the temperature dependent characteristic parameters for Pd/V/n-InP SBDs can be successfully explained on the basis of TE mechanism with Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/2790

    Meissner screening mass in two-flavor quark matter at nonzero temperature

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    We calculate the Meissner screening mass of gluons 4--7 in two-flavor quark matter at nonzero temperature. To this end, we study the effective potential of the 2SC/g2SC phases including a vector condensate andcalculatetheMeissnermassfromthepotentialcurvaturewithrespectto and calculate the Meissner mass from the potential curvature with respect to . We find that the Meissner mass becomes real at the critical temperature which is about the half of the chemical potential mismatch. The phase diagram of the neutral two-flavor color superconductor is presented in the plane of temperature and coupling strength. We indicate the unstable region for gluons 4--7 on the phase diagram.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, minor revisions to text, version to appear in PR

    Effect of series resistance and interface state density on electrical characteristics of Au/SiO2/n-GaN Schottky diodes

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    metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) Schottky diodes and compared with (Au/n-GaN)metal-semiconductor (MS) Schottky diode. The effect of SiO2 on the surface preparation of n-GaN (MIS) Schottky diode is analyzed. The extracted Schottky barrier height and ideality factor of the MS Schottky diode is found to be 0.79 eV and 1.45 respectively. It is observed that the Schottky barrier height increases to 0.86 eV and ideality factor decreases to 1.3 for MIS diode. The interface state density as determined by Terman’s method is found to be 3.79 × 1012 and 3.41 × 1010 cm - 2 eV - 1 for the MS and MIS Schottky diodes, respectively. In addition, the values of series resistance (Rs) are determined using Cheung’s method. The I - V characteristics confirmed that the distribution of Nss, Rs and interfacial layer are important parameters that influence the electrical characteristics of MIS Schottky diodes. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/2222

    Collective excitations, instabilities, and ground state in dense quark matter

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    We study the spectrum of light plasmons in the (gapped and gapless) two-flavor color superconducting phases and its connection with the chromomagnetic instabilities and the structure of the ground state. It is revealed that the chromomagnetic instabilities in the 4-7th and 8th gluonic channels correspond to two very different plasmon spectra. These spectra lead us to the unequivocal conclusion about the existence of gluonic condensates (some of which can be spatially inhomogeneous) in the ground state. We also argue that spatially inhomogeneous gluonic condensates should exist in the three-flavor quark matter with the values of the mass of strange quark corresponding to the gapless color-flavor locked state.Comment: Revtex, 5 pages, 4 figures, two figures and clarifications added, to appear in PRD (Rapid Communications

    Neutral Larkin--Ovchinnikov--Fulde--Ferrell state and chromomagnetic instability in two-flavor dense QCD

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    In two-flavor dense quark matter, we describe the dynamics in the single plane wave Larkin--Ovchinnikov--Fulde--Ferrell (LOFF) state satisfying the color and electric neutrality conditions. We find that because the neutral LOFF state itself suffers from a chromomagnetic instability in the whole region where it coexists with the (gapped/gapless) two-flavor superconducting (2SC/g2SC) phases, it cannot cure this instability in those phases. This is unlike the recently revealed gluonic phase which seems to be able to resolve this problem.Comment: Revtex4, 5 pages, 3 figures, clarifications added, to appear in Phys.Rev.Let

    Chromomagnetic instability in two-flavor quark matter at nonzero temperature

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    We calculate the effective potential of the 2SC/g2SC phases including vector condensates (and and ) and study the gluonic phase and the single plane-wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell state at nonzero temperature. Our analysis is performed within the framework of the gauged Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. We compute potential curvatures with respect to the vector condensates and investigate the temperature dependence of the Meissner masses squared of gluons of color 4--7 and 8 in the neutral 2SC/g2SC phases. The phase diagram is presented in the plane of temperature and coupling strength. The unstable regions for gluons 4--7 and 8 are mapped out on the phase diagram. We find that, apart from the case of strong coupling, the 2SC/g2SC phases at low temperatures are unstable against the vector condensation until the temperature reaches tens of MeV.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figures, revisions to text, published in Phys. Rev.

    High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

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    Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and 99mTc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59%) patients (6 males and 4 females) had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect). Five (29%) had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41%) had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism
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