105 research outputs found

    Potential T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can instigate molecular mimicry against host: implications in autoimmune pathogenesis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and host-proteins is one of the etiological enigmas for the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. T cells that recognize cross-reactive epitopes may trigger autoimmune reactions. Intriguingly, autoimmune diseases have been reported to be prevalent in tuberculosis endemic populations. Further, association of <it>Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) </it>has been implicated in different autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Although, <it>in silico </it>analyses have identified a number of <it>M. tuberculosis </it>specific vaccine candidates, the analysis on prospective cross-reactive epitopes, that may elicit autoimmune response, has not been yet attempted. Here, we have employed bioinformatics tools to determine T cell epitopes of homologous antigenic regions between <it>M. tuberculosis </it>and human proteomes.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Employing bioinformatics tools, we have identified potentially cross-reactive T cell epitopes restricted to predominant class I and II alleles of human leukocyte antigens (HLA). These are similar to peptides of mycobacterial proteins and considerable numbers of them are promiscuous. Some of the identified antigens corroborated with established autoimmune diseases linked with mycobacterial infection.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The present study reveals many target proteins and their putative T cell epitopes that might have significant application in understanding the molecular basis of possible T cell autoimmune reactions during <it>M. tuberculosis </it>infections.</p

    Lipidated promiscuous peptide augments the expression of MHC-II molecules on dendritic cells and activates T cells

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    Background &#38; Objectives: In spite of the fact that BCG is the most widely used vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major killer disease in TB-endemic regions. Recently, many emerging evidences from the published literature indicate the role of environmental mycobacteria in blocking the processing and presentation of BCG antigens and thereby impairing with suboptimal generation of protective T cells. To surmount this problem associated with BCG, we constructed a novel lipopeptide (L91) by conjugating a promiscuous peptide consisting of CD4 T-helper epitope of sequence of 91-110 of 16 kDa antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pam2Cys, an agonist of Toll-like receptor-2. Methods: Mice were immunized subcutaneously with 20 nmol of L91, followed by a booster with 10 nmol, after an interval of 21 days of primary immunization. Animals were sacrificed after seven days of post-booster immunization. L91 induced immune response was characterized by the expression of MHC-II and CD74 on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) by flowcytometry. Cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ) secretion and anti-peptide antibodies were measured by ELISA. Results: Self-adjuvanting lipopeptide vaccine (L91) was directly bound to MHC-II molecules and without requiring extensive processing for its presentation to T cells. It stimulated and activated dendritic cells and augmented the expression of MHC-II molecules. Further, it activated effector CD4 T cells to mainly secrete interferon (IFN)-γ but not interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10. L91 did not elicit anti-peptide antibodies. Interpretation &#38; Conclusions: The findings suggest that L91 evokes maturation and upregulation of MHC class II molecules and promotes better antigen presentation and, therefore, optimum activation of T cells. L91 mainly induces effector Th1 cells, as evidenced by predominant release of IFN-γ, consequently can mount favourable immune response against M. tuberculosis . As L91 does not provoke the generation of anti-peptide antibodies, there is no fear of the efficacy of the vaccine being neutralized by pre-existing anti-mycobacterial antibodies in TB-endemic population. In conclusion, L91 may be considered as a future potential candidate vaccine against TB

    A novel therapeutic strategy of lipidated promiscuous peptide against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by eliciting Th1 and Th17 immunity of host

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    Regardless of the fact that potent drug-regimen is currently available, tuberculosis continues to kill 1.5 million people annually. Tuberculosis patients are not only inflicted by the trauma of disease but they also suffer from the harmful side-effects, immune suppression and drug resistance instigated by prolonged therapy. It is an exigency to introduce radical changes in the existing drug-regime and discover safer and better therapeutic measures. Hence, we designed a novel therapeutic strategy by reinforcing the efficacy of drugs to kill Mtb by concurrently boosting host immunity by L91. L91 is chimera of promiscuous epitope of Acr1 antigen of Mtb and TLR-2 agonist Pam2Cys. The adjunct therapy using drugs and L91 (D-L91) significantly declined the bacterial load in Mtb infected animals. The mechanism involved was through enhancement of IFN-γ+TNF-α+ polyfunctional Th1 cells and IL-17A+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells, enduring memory CD4 T cells and downregulation of PD-1. The down-regulation of PD-1 prevents CD4 T cells from undergoing exhaustion and improves their function against Mtb. Importantly, the immune response observed in animals could be replicated using T cells of tuberculosis patients on drug therapy. In future, D-L91 therapy can invigorate drugs potency to treat tuberculosis patients and reduce the dose and duration of drug-regime

    Possible role of human herpesvirus 8 in the lymphoproliferative disorders in common variable immunodeficiency

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    Patients who have common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and granulomatous/lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) are at high risk for early mortality and B cell lymphomas. Infection with human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8), a B cell lymphotrophic virus, is linked to lymphoproliferative disorders in people who have secondary immunodeficiencies. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of HHV8 infection in CVID patients with GLILD. Genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was screened by nested- and real time-quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR) for the presence of HHV8 genome. It was positive in 6/9 CVID patients with GLILD (CVID-GLILD), 1/21 CVID patients without GLILD (CVID-control), and no patients receiving intravenous gamma globulin (n = 13) or normal blood donors (n = 20). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) demonstrated expression of the latency-associated nuclear antigen-1 (LANA-1) in the biopsies of the lung, liver, and bone marrow of four patients with CVID-GLILD. One CVID-GLILD patient developed a B cell lymphoma during the course of the study. QRT-PCR demonstrated high copy number of HHV8 genome and IHC showed diffuse staining for LANA-1 in the malignant lymph node. HHV8 infection may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the interstitial lung disease and lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with CVID

    Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation

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    Our understanding of the genetics of skin pigmentation has been largely skewed towards populations of European ancestry, imparting less attention to South Asian populations, who behold huge pigmentation diversity. Here, we investigate skin pigmentation variation in a cohort of 1,167 individuals in the Middle Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm the association of rs1426654 with skin pigmentation among South Asians, consistent with previous studies, and also show association for rs2470102 single nucleotide polymorphism. Our haplotype analyses further help us delineate the haplotype distribution across social categories and skin color. Taken together, our findings suggest that the social structure defined by the caste system in India has a profound influence on the skin pigmentation patterns of the subcontinent. In particular, social category and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms explain about 32% and 6.4%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. Phylogeography of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms studied across 52 diverse populations of the Indian subcontinent shows wide presence of the derived alleles, although their frequencies vary across populations. Our results show that both polymorphisms (rs1426654 and rs2470102) play an important role in the skin pigmentation diversity of South Asians
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