19,896 research outputs found

    Friction material (metal reinforcement) analysis of brake pad for light rail train system

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    Brake friction material is very important in braking system where they convert kinetic energy of moving vehicles to thermal energy by friction during braking process. The purpose of this research is to determine the optimal friction materials composition of brake pad for light rail train system. Currently all the component of the train system including brake pad is imported from overseas such as Germany. Hence, this research is use to find the new formulation of the mixture ratio that may replace or compete with the commercial available brake pad. Three different testing which are density and porosity test, shore hardness test and wear test were done in order to select which metal is the most suitable for railway application. Different composition were used, (Cu30%BaSO430%), (Cu25%BaSO435%), (Cu20%BaSO440%), (Steel30% BaSO430%), (Steel25% BaSO435%), (Steel20% BaSO440%), (Al30% BaSO430%), (Al25% BaSO435%), and (Al20% BaSO440%) this study to determine the optimal properties with lower wear rate. The selected material were mixed and compacted into desired mould with 5 tons of pressure. The compacted samples were sintered using two different temperatures which is 600oC and 800oC. Steel30% BaSO430% results in the optimal composition since the result shows the lowest porosity, highest SD reading of shore hardness and the lowest wear rate. The samples were analysed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) system to determine the morphology surface and overall composition of the samples. Comparing different sintering temperature, the sintered sample of 800oC shows lower wear rate than the sample sintered at 600oC. This is due to dense sample without crack showing by the samples sintered at 800oC than at 600oC

    Entanglement of a class of non-Gaussian states in disordered harmonic oscillator systems

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    For disordered harmonic oscillator systems over the dd-dimensional lattice, we consider the problem of finding the bipartite entanglement of the uniform ensemble of the energy eigenstates associated with a particular number of modes. Such ensemble define a class of mixed, non-Gaussian entangled states that are labeled, by the energy of the system, in an increasing order. We develop a novel approach to find the exact logarithmic negativity of this class of states. We also prove entanglement bounds and demonstrate that the low energy states follow an area law.Comment: 21 pages, to appear at JM

    Simulation of dynamic load effect on power system frequency

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    This thesis addresses the impact of dynamic load on power system frequency. Rapid dynamic load variations will bring significant impact to the power system in terms of frequency. The thesis is based on three-phase dynamic load (composite based). The objective of this thesis was to analyse the dynamic characteristics of loads and its impact on power system frequency. For this, IEEE 9 bus system was tested with dynamic loads by observing change in power system frequenc

    Chemical and biological reactions of solidification of peat using ordinary portland cement (OPC) and coal ashes

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    Construction over peat area have often posed a challenge to geotechnical engineers. After decades of study on peat stabilisation techniques, there are still no absolute formulation or guideline that have been established to handle this issue. Some researchers have proposed solidification of peat but a few researchers have also discovered that solidified peat seemed to decrease its strength after a certain period of time. Therefore, understanding the chemical and biological reaction behind the peat solidification is vital to understand the limitation of this treatment technique. In this study, all three types of peat; fabric, hemic and sapric were mixed using Mixing 1 and Mixing 2 formulation which consisted of ordinary Portland cement, fly ash and bottom ash at various ratio. The mixtures of peat-binder-filler were subjected to the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test, bacterial count test and chemical elemental analysis by using XRF, XRD, FTIR and EDS. Two pattern of strength over curing period were observed. Mixing 1 samples showed a steadily increase in strength over curing period until Day 56 while Mixing 2 showed a decrease in strength pattern at Day 28 and Day 56. Samples which increase in strength steadily have less bacterial count and enzymatic activity with increase quantity of crystallites. Samples with lower strength recorded increase in bacterial count and enzymatic activity with less crystallites. Analysis using XRD showed that pargasite (NaCa2[Mg4Al](Si6Al2)O22(OH)2) was formed in the higher strength samples while in the lower strength samples, pargasite was predicted to be converted into monosodium phosphate and Mg(OH)2 as bacterial consortium was re-activated. The Michaelis�Menten coefficient, Km of the bio-chemical reaction in solidified peat was calculated as 303.60. This showed that reaction which happened during solidification work was inefficient. The kinetics for crystallite formation with enzymatic effect is modelled as 135.42 (1/[S] + 0.44605) which means, when pargasite formed is lower, the amount of enzyme secretes is higher

    Liquid mixture control system using PLC

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    The principle of the Liquids Mixture Control System By using PLC is to mix two or more types of liquids with different PH values, in order to acquire new PH value with correct composition, which to maintain product quality .These processes exist in beverage, drinkingwater, food, pharmaceuticals, chemistry, refinery indutries, also important for fish hatcheries, water conditioning and aquaculture, etc, moreover correct composition of PH value in our diet is important for our health,therefore for this project, volumetric of one type of liquid,can be determined its quantity of volume before entering into the Mixture tank and then, another liquid is entered automatically into this Mixture Tank,after that the mixing process will be done,which this system determined PH value automatically that macthing the PH value requirement as a complete product.Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) with analogue input signal is used to control this Liquids Mixture Control system.This system consist of six tanks, with one mixturer motor and also five pumps are used to control the system via PLC. PH sensor is used to detect PH value of the mixture, which this signal is fed to analogue input PLC teminal, that to be used for comparing PH value required as a product. The user can select volume one type of liquid to be entered into Mixture Tank, by pressing select buttons on the control panel board.This project can be used for manufacturing industries base on liquids and also for fish hatcheries, water conditioning and aquaculture ,which have been proved by project analyzing and testing results

    The Esthetic of Ornamental Design of Traditional Mask form Malang

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    The ornament on Malang traditional mask is extremely varied and so function and forms. This is caused by art mask not quit of existence form influence of external culture. Appearance variety of one culture with the other culture be interaction and charge each other, so ornamentation on mask growing up to now. The intercultural of interaction the other canton to be generate new entity of culture acculturation, so that happened on Malang traditional mask till show the uniqueness of individuality of form as well as ornament design from each spread region mask on Malang. This research produce of representation about ornament motif aesthetics aspect which exactly on ornamentation design and the significant diverification toward form, colour in ornament motif than each craftsmans. Know result of the research afterwards necessary existence of furthermore research about ornament design evolution on Malangan Mask, with the result that Malangan mask existence that expanding until now on ornament motif can be native everlasting

    Model kejayaan utama amalan terbaik pengurusan penyenggaraan bangunan warisan di Malaysia

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    Pendekatan penyenggaraan seringkali dianggap sebagai aktiviti yang remeh sehinggakan dalam praktis semasa, pendekatan ini tidak dapat menarik perhatian kebanyakkan golongan berpengetahuan dan berkemahiran. Senario ini memberikan justifikasi awal mengenai budaya semasa penyenggaraan yang tidak lagi diterapkan secara cekap dan berkesan. Sehubungan dengan itu matlamat kajian ini adalah untuk meneroka perspektif semasa amalan pengurusan warisan dalam industri pengekalan dan pemuliharaan bangunan warisan di Malaysia, mengenalpasti faktor yang mempengaruhi amalan semasa dan membentuk faktor kejayaan utama amalan terbaik pengurusan penyenggaraan bangunan warisan di Malaysia. Dalam mencapai matlamat tersebut, satu model penilaian amalan terbaik pengurusan penyenggaraan bangunan warisan telah dibangunkan menggunakan kaedah Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) berpandukan kepada elemen kriteria amalan terbaik. Model penilaian ini telah diuji di enam buah organisasi pengurusan penyenggaraan bangunan warisan. Hasil penemuan mendapati bahawa indikasi amalan semasa pengurusan penyenggaraan bangunan warisan di Malaysia telah dikategorikan sebagai lemah (59.05%). Kajian seterusnya adalah untuk mengenalpasti masalah yang menyumbang kepada kelemahan amalan semasa di mana maklumbalas dari 63 responden yang terdiri daripada ahli akademik dan profesional industri mendapati bahawa masalah kewangan, kekurangan institusi serta kemudahan latihan, masalah alat ganti dan sikap manusia sebagai faktor yang amat signifikan. Sebagai refleks kepada masalah yang telah dikenalpasti, model kejayaan utama amalan terbaik pengurusan penyenggaraan bangunan warisan telah direkabentuk bagi proses menambahbaik praktis amalan semasa. Kesimpulannya, model kejayaan utama yang dibentuk berpotensi membantu ke arah mengubah amalan semasa yang lemah kepada amalan yang lebih baik dan berkesan di masa hadapa
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