1,861 research outputs found

    Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage

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    Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are currently the therapeutic choices in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, with limited remission and often serious side effects. Meanwhile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is increasing, particularly herbal medicine. Boswellia serrata is a traditional Ayurvedic remedy with anti-inflammatory properties, of interest for its usefulness in IBDs. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of Boswellia serrata was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers exposed to H2O2 or INF-\u3b3+TNF-\u3b1, chosen as in vitro experimental model of intestinal inflammation. The barrier function was evaluated by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability assay, and by the tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, ZO-1 and occludin) immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated NF-\u3baB and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by immunoblot and cytofluorimetric assay, respectively. Boswellia serrata oleo-gum extract (BSE) and its pure derivative acetyl-11-keto-\u3b2-boswellic acid (AKBA), were tested at 0.1-10 \u3bcg/ml and 0.027\u3bcg/ml, respectively. BSE and AKBA safety was demonstrated by no alteration of intestinal cell viability and barrier function and integrity biomarkers. H2O2 or INF-\u3b3+TNF-\u3b1 treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers significantly reduced TEER, increased paracellular permeability and caused the disassembly of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1. BSE and AKBA pretreatment significantly prevented functional and morphological alterations and also the NF-\u3baB phosphorylation induced by the inflammatory stimuli. At the same concentrations BSE and AKBA counteracted the increase of ROS caused by H2O2 exposure. Data showed the positive correlation of the antioxidant activity with the mechanism involved in the physiologic maintenance of the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium. This study elucidates the pharmacological mechanisms mediated by BSE, in protecting intestinal epithelial barrier from inflammatory damage and supports its use as safe adjuvant in patients affected by IBD

    Protective effects of \u3c8 taraxasterol 3-O-myristate and arnidiol 3-O-myristate isolated from Calendula officinalis on epithelial intestinal barrier

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    The triterpene esters psi taraxasterol-3-O-myristate (1) and amidio1-3-O-myristate (2) were tested for their ability to protect epithelial intestinal barrier in an in vitro model. Their effects on ROS production and on trans-epithelial resistance were investigated on CaCo-2 cell monolayers both in basal and stress -induced conditions. Both compounds were able to modulate the stress damage induced by H2O2 and INF gamma + TNF alpha, showing a potential use as model compounds for the study of new therapeutic agents for intestinal inflammations

    Imbalance of Mg Homeostasis as a Potential Biomarker in Colon Cancer

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    Background: Increasing evidences support a correlation between magnesium (Mg) homeostasis and colorectal cancer (CRC). Nevertheless, the role of Mg and its transporters as diagnostic markers in CRC is still a matter of debate. In this study we combined X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy and databases information to investigate the possible correlation between Mg imbalance and CRC. Methods: CRC tissue samples and their non-tumoural counterpart from four patients were collected and analysed for total Mg level and distribution by X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy. We also reviewed the scientific literature and the main tissue expression databases to collect data on Mg transporters expression in CRC. Results: We found a significantly higher content of total Mg in CRC samples when compared to non-tumoural tissues. Mg distribution was also impaired in CRC. Conversely, we evidenced an uncertain correlation between Mg transporters expression and colon malignancies. Discussion: Although further studies are necessary to determine the correlation between different cancer types and stages, this is the first report proposing the measurement of Mg tissue localisation as a marker in CRC. This study represents thus a proof-of-concept that paves the way for the design of a larger prospective investigation of Mg in CRC

    L' efficacia degli incentivi agli investimenti in sicurezza.

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    Il quaderno fornisce un quadro assolutamente inedito sullo strumento degli Incentivi di Sostegno alle Imprese, i cosiddetti Bandi ISI, che sostengono le imprese che realizzano investimenti che migliorino le condizioni di sicurezza e di salute dei luoghi di lavoro. Idealmente la politica mira a un target di imprese caratterizzate da maggiore rischio, a causa della piccola dimensione o del tipo di lavorazione o ancora del settore produttivo, e fornisce un contributo a fondo perduto per realizzare investimenti che apportino una riduzione del rischio di infortunio o di quello di contrarre malattie professionali. Si tratta della prima volta in cui viene pubblicato un quadro completo del sistema di implementazione di questa politica gestita dall’Inail, quadro dotato di un ampio corredo di informazioni qualitative e quantitative. Questo è stato reso possibile per la piena collaborazione offerta dall’Istituto Nazionale per l’Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro (Inail) che nel proprio Piano delle attività di ricerca 2016-2018 aveva già intrapreso un percorso di ricerca che aveva come obiettivo la valutazione della sostenibilità e dell’efficacia degli interventi di prevenzione

    Oscillation Physics with a Neutrino Factory

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    A generation of neutrino experiments have established that neutrinos mix and probably have mass. The mixing phenomenon points to processes beyond those of the Standard Model, possibly at the Grand Unification energy scale. A extensive sequence of of experiments will be required to measure precisely all the parameters of the neutrino mixing matrix, culminating with the discovery and study of leptonic CP violation. As a first step, extensions of conventional pion/kaon decay beams, such as off-axis beams or low-energy super-beams, have been considered. These could yield first observations of νμ→νe\nu_\mu \to \nu_e transitions at the atmospheric frequency, which have not yet been observed, and a first measurement of θ13\theta_{13}. Experiments with much better flux control can be envisaged if the neutrinos are obtained from the decays of stored particles. One such possibility is the concept of beta beams provided by the decays of radioactive nuclei, that has been developed within the context of these studies. These would provide a pure (anti-)electron-neutrino beam of a few hundred MeV, and beautiful complementarity with a high-intensity, low-energy conventional beam, enabling experimental probes of T violation as well as CP violation. Ultimately, a definitive and complete set of measurements would offered by a Neutrino Factory based on a muon storage ring. This powerful machine offers the largest reach for CP violation, even for very small values of θ13\theta_{13}

    Association between preoperative evaluation with lung ultrasound and outcome in frail elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgery for hip fractures: study protocol for an Italian multicenter observational prospective study (LUSHIP)

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    Hip fracture is one of the most common orthopedic causes of hospital admission in frail elderly patients. Hip fracture fixation in this class of patients is considered a high-risk procedure. Preoperative physical examination, plasma natriuretic peptide levels (BNP, Pro-BNP), and cardiovascular scoring systems (ASA-PS, RCRI, NSQIP-MICA) have all been demonstrated to underestimate the risk of postoperative complications. We designed a prospective multicenter observational study to assess whether preoperative lung ultrasound examination can predict better postoperative events thanks to the additional information they provide in the form of "indirect" and "direct" cardiac and pulmonary lung ultrasound signs

    miRNAs Expression Analysis in Paired Fresh/Frozen and Dissected Formalin Fixed and Paraffin Embedded Glioblastoma Using Real-Time PCR

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    miRNAs are small molecules involved in gene regulation. Each tissue shows a characteristic miRNAs epression profile that could be altered during neoplastic transformation. Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumour of the adult with a high rate of mortality. Recognizing a specific pattern of miRNAs for GBM could provide further boost for target therapy. The availability of fresh tissue for brain specimens is often limited and for this reason the possibility of starting from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) could very helpful even in miRNAs expression analysis. We analysed a panel of 19 miRNAs in 30 paired samples starting both from FFPE and Fresh/Frozen material. Our data revealed that there is a good correlation in results obtained from FFPE in comparison with those obtained analysing miRNAs extracted from Fresh/Frozen specimen. In the few cases with a not good correlation value we noticed that the discrepancy could be due to dissection performed in FFPE samples. To the best of our knowledge this is the first paper demonstrating that the results obtained in miRNAs analysis using Real-Time PCR starting from FFPE specimens of glioblastoma are comparable with those obtained in Fresh/Frozen samples

    Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

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    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals
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