109 research outputs found

    Global comment on the use of hydroxychloroquine during the periconception period and pregnancy in women with autoimmune diseases

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    Hyponatraemia and changes in natraemia during hospitalization for acute heart failure and associations with in-hospital and long-term outcomes - from the ESC HFA EORP Heart Failure Long-Term Registry

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    Aims: To comprehensively assess hyponatraemia in acute heart failure (AHF) regarding prevalence, associations, hospital course, and post-discharge outcomes. Methods and results: Of 8,298 patients in the ESC-HF Long-Term Registry hospitalized for AHF with any ejection fraction, 20% presented with hyponatraemia (serum sodium <135 mmol/L). Independent predictors included lower systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and haemoglobin, along with diabetes, hepatic disease, use of thiazide diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, digoxin, higher doses of loop diuretics, and non-use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and beta-blockers. In-hospital death occurred in 3.3%. The prevalence of hyponatraemia and in-hospital mortality with different combinations were: 9% hyponatraemia both at admission and discharge (hyponatraemia Yes/Yes, in-hospital mortality 6.9%), 11% Yes/No (in-hospital mortality 4.9%), 8% No/Yes (in-hospital mortality 4.7%), and 72% No/No (in-hospital mortality 2.4%). Correction of hyponatraemia was associated with improvement in eGFR. In-hospital development of hyponatraemia was associated with greater diuretic use and worsening eGFR but also more effective decongestion. Among hospital survivors, 12-month mortality was 19% and adjusted hazard ratios were for hyponatraemia Yes/Yes 1.60 (1.35-1.89), Yes/No 1.35 (1.14-1.59), and No/Yes 1.18 (0.96-1.45). For death or HF hospitalization they were 1.38 (1.21-1.58), 1.17 (1.02-1.33), and 1.09 (0.93-1.27), respectively. Conclusion: Among patients with AHF, 20% had hyponatraemia at admission, which was associated with more advanced HF and normalized in half of patients during hospitalization. Admission hyponatraemia (possibly dilutional), especially if it did not resolve, was associated with worse in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes. Hyponatraemia developing during hospitalization (possibly depletional) was associated with lower risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

    Chasing the Zebra: a case of membranous-like Glomerulopathy with SSA/RO52 deposits and no overt connective tissue disease

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    Abstract Background The nature of the deposits in immune-mediated glomerulonephritis with a membranous pattern and masked IgG-Kappa deposits (MGMID) remains still to be elucidated. Case presentation We present a case of 33-year-old woman developing a continuous asymptomatic proteinuria (0.8–1 g/24 h) with no overt connective tissue diseases. She tested positive at high titers for SSA antibodies (Ro52 838 UI/mL, Ro60 2716 UI/mL) and at the kidney biopsy histological findings were compatible with an immune-mediated glomerulonephritis with a membranous pattern and masked IgG-Kappa deposits. Also, we demonstrated a positive immunohistochemistry staining for anti-Ro52-SSA antibodies, with a granular positivity in mesangium and along rare glomerular capillaries. To date, only one case of a patient with overt diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome with MGMID has been described but a pathogenic role for SSA and SSB antibodies has never been proven. Conclusions In this case, we described for the first time by immunohistochemistry a Ro52+ granular positivity in the mesangium and glomerular capillaries, potentially paving the way for a better understanding of MGMID

    Exploring the cost-effectiveness of high versus low perioperative fraction of inspired oxygen in the prevention of surgical site infections among abdominal surgery patients in three low- and middle-income countries

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    Background: This study assessed the potential cost-effectiveness of high (80–100%) vs low (21–35%) fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) after abdominal surgery in Nigeria, India, and South Africa. Methods: Decision-analytic models were constructed using best available evidence sourced from unbundled data of an ongoing pilot trial assessing the effectiveness of high FiO2, published literature, and a cost survey in Nigeria, India, and South Africa. Effectiveness was measured as percentage of SSIs at 30 days after surgery, a healthcare perspective was adopted, and costs were reported in US dollars ().Results:HighFiO2maybecosteffective(cheaperandeffective).InNigeria,theaveragecostforhighFiO2was). Results: High FiO2 may be cost-effective (cheaper and effective). In Nigeria, the average cost for high FiO2 was 216 compared with 222forlowFiO2leadingtoa 222 for low FiO2 leading to a −6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −13to 13 to −1) difference in costs. In India, the average cost for high FiO2 was 184comparedwith184 compared with 195 for low FiO2 leading to a −11(9511 (95% CI: −15 to −6)differenceincosts.InSouthAfrica,theaveragecostforhighFiO2was6) difference in costs. In South Africa, the average cost for high FiO2 was 1164 compared with 1257forlowFiO2leadingtoa 1257 for low FiO2 leading to a −93 (95% CI: −132to 132 to −65) difference in costs. The high FiO2 arm had few SSIs, 7.33% compared with 8.38% for low FiO2, leading to a −1.05 (95% CI: −1.14 to −0.90) percentage point reduction in SSIs. Conclusion: High FiO2 could be cost-effective at preventing SSIs in the three countries but further data from large clinical trials are required to confirm this

    Clinical-Pathological Characteristics of Renal Injuries Identify Different Clusters in Patients With Antiphospholipid Antibodies

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    IntroductionSignificant heterogeneity still exists in the nomenclature of renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).MethodsWe applied a hierarchical cluster analysis to determine subgroups of patients according to clinical, laboratory, and renal histology characteristics in a cohort of subjects with confirmed antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) positivity and biopsy proven aPL-related renal injuries. Kidney outcomes were then assessed at 12 months.ResultsA total of 123 aPL-positive patients were included in the study (101 [82%] female, 109 [88.6%] with systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], 14 (11.4%) with primary APS [PAPS]). Three clusters were identified. Twenty-three patients (18.7%) were included in the first cluster (cluster 1), characterized by a higher prevalence of glomerular capillary and arteriolar thrombi and fragmented red blood cells in the subendothelial space. Cluster 2 included 33 patients (26.8%) and showed a higher prevalence of fibromyointimal proliferative lesions as seen in hyperplastic vasculopathy. Cluster 3 was the largest (67 patients, mainly with SLE) and was characterized by higher prevalence of subendothelial edema, of both glomerular capillaries and arterioles.ConclusionThree different clusters of patients with aPL and renal injuries emerged from our study as follows: the first, with the worst renal prognosis, was associated with features of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), thrombosis, triple aPL positivity and higher adjusted Global APS Score (aGAPSS) values; the second, characterized by hyperplastic vasculopathy with an intermediate prognosis, was seen more frequently in patients with cerebrovascular manifestations; and the third, more benign in terms of outcomes and with no overt association with thrombotic features, was characterized by endothelial swelling in concomitant lupus nephritis (LN)

    Health inequalities and social determinants of health:The role of syndemics in rheumatic diseases

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    A syndemic is the co-existence of two or more health problems (including both social and biological features) that adversely influence each other with negative consequences on disease outcomes and perpetuation of inequalities. The syndemic approach can be applied to better understand the course of rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) involving the study of adverse biological pathways and social determinants of health (SDH) all under the same framework. Identifying if a syndemic exists within RMDs may include investigating the synergic interactions between comorbidity (e.g., diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney diseases) and the concomitant of other adverse conditions (e.g., drug non-adherence, substance abuse), along with SDHs such as low household income, unemployment, low education, limited access to health care, as well as racial/ethnic discrimination. For decades, the understanding of RMDs progression has been based on causality, rather than investigating the kaleidoscopic web of connections that can potentially influence a disease course. The co-existence of health burdens in vulnerable populations, including those with RMD, specifically in certain socioeconomic groups, calls for new ways and strategies of thinking to improve our understanding of risk factors and co-morbidities to offer tailored interventions for clinical medicine and public health policy.</p
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