8 research outputs found

    Detection of non-melanoma skin cancer by in vivo fluorescence imaging with fluorocoxib A.

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    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer in the US and its incidence is increasing. The current standard of care is visual inspection by physicians and/or dermatologists, followed by skin biopsy and pathologic confirmation. We have investigated the use of in vivo fluorescence imaging using fluorocoxib A as a molecular probe for early detection and assessment of skin tumors in mouse models of NMSC. Fluorocoxib A targets the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme that is preferentially expressed by inflamed and tumor tissue, and therefore has potential to be an effective broadly active molecular biomarker for cancer detection. We tested the sensitivity of fluorocoxib A in a BCC allograft SCID hairless mouse model using a wide-field fluorescence imaging system. Subcutaneous allografts comprised of 1000 BCC cells were detectable above background. These BCC allograft mice were imaged over time and a linear correlation (R(2) = 0.8) between tumor volume and fluorocoxib A signal levels was observed. We also tested fluorocoxib A in a genetically engineered spontaneous BCC mouse model (Ptch1(+/-) K14-Cre-ER2 p53(fl/fl)), where sequential imaging of the same animals over time demonstrated that early, microscopic lesions (100 ╬╝m size) developed into visible macroscopic tumor masses over 11 to 17 days. Overall, for macroscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 88% and the specificity was 100%. For microscopic tumors, the sensitivity was 85% and specificity was 56%. These results demonstrate the potential of fluorocoxib A as an in vivo imaging agent for early detection, margin delineation and guided biopsies of NMSCs

    Real fuel modeling for gasoline compression ignition engine

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    Increasing regulatory demand for efficiency has led to development of novel combustion modes such as HCCI, GCI and RCCI for gasoline light duty engines. In order to realize HCCI as a compression ignition combustion mode system, in-cylinder compression temperatures must be elevated to reach the autoignition point of the premixed fuel/air mixture. This should be co-optimized with appropriate fuel formulations that can autoignite at such temperatures. CFD combustion modeling is used to model the auto ignition of gasoline fuel under compression ignition conditions. Using the fully detailed fuel mechanism consisting of thousands of components in the CFD simulations is computationally expensive. To overcome this challenge, the real fuel is represented by few major components of create a surrogate fuel mechanism. In this study, 9 variations of gasoline fuel sets were chosen as candidates to run in HCCI combustion mode. A study detailing the development of the gasoline real fuel model was performed and various surrogates for gasoline fuel were investigated. The gasoline real fuel model will be used in subsequent CFD modelling activities for the development of an advanced mixed mode combustion system as part of the Department of Energy funded project DE-EE0008478

    Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery

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    A fluorescence confocal microscope incorporating a 1.8-mm-diam gradient-index relay lens is developed for in vivo histological guidance during resection of brain tumors. The microscope utilizes a dual-axis confocal architecture to efficiently reject out-of-focus light for high-contrast optical sectioning. A biaxial microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanning mirror is actuated at resonance along each axis to achieve a large field of view with low-voltage waveforms. The unstable Lissajous scan, which results from actuating the orthogonal axes of the MEMS mirror at highly disparate resonance frequencies, is optimized to fully sample 500├Ś500 pixels at two frames per second. Optically sectioned fluorescence images of brain tissues are obtained in living mice to demonstrate the utility of this microscope for image-guided resections