1,077 research outputs found

    An Alternative Method for Solving a Certain Class of Fractional Kinetic Equations

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    An alternative method for solving the fractional kinetic equations solved earlier by Haubold and Mathai (2000) and Saxena et al. (2002, 2004a, 2004b) is recently given by Saxena and Kalla (2007). This method can also be applied in solving more general fractional kinetic equations than the ones solved by the aforesaid authors. In view of the usefulness and importance of the kinetic equation in certain physical problems governing reaction-diffusion in complex systems and anomalous diffusion, the authors present an alternative simple method for deriving the solution of the generalized forms of the fractional kinetic equations solved by the aforesaid authors and Nonnenmacher and Metzler (1995). The method depends on the use of the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus operators. It has been shown by the application of Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operator and its interesting properties, that the solution of the given fractional kinetic equation can be obtained in a straight-forward manner. This method does not make use of the Laplace transform.Comment: 7 pages, LaTe

    Molecular diversity among wild relatives of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

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    The wild relatives of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] are important source of genetic variation carrying genes for resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses and other morphological traits. In the present study, four wild relatives of pigeonpea were evaluated using 24 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to assess their genetic diversity at molecular level. Each marker, on average, amplified 3.3 alleles with polymorphic information content (PIC) value of 0.53. The dendrogram pattern revealed two distinct genotypic clusters and cultivated pigeonpea was closely related to Cajanus cajanifolius. On the contrary, Cajanus scarabaeoides was the most diverse from the cultivated type. The results also suggest that genetic distance between cultivated pigeonpea and wild species was not related to their hybridization barrier.Keywords: Cajanus, crossability, genetic diversity, simple sequence repeat markers, wild relativesAfrican Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(24), pp. 3797-380

    Wild leafy vegetables: A study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India

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    Consumption of greens is a major source of vitamins and micro-nutrients for people using only vegetarian diets rich in carbohydrates. In remote rural settlements where vegetable cultivation is not practiced and market supplies are not organized, local inhabitants depend on indigenous vegetables, both cultivated in kitchen gardens and wild, for enriching the diversity of food. Knowledge of such foods is part of traditional knowledge which is largely transmitted through participation of individuals of households. A total of 123 households in six villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve buffer zone was surveyed using a schedule to assess the knowledge, availability and consumption pattern of wild leafy vegetables. Quantity estimations were done using regular visits with informants from 30 sample households of the six study villages during the collections. Monetization was used to see the value of wild leafy vegetables harvested during a year. The diversity of wild leafy vegetables being use by the local inhabitants is 21 species belonging to 14 genera and 11 families. This is far less than that being reported to be used by the communities from Western Ghats in India and some parts of Africa. Irrespective of social or economic status all households in the study villages had the knowledge and used wild leafy vegetables. The number of households reported to consume these wild leafy vegetables is greater than the number of households reporting to harvest them for all species except for Diplazium esculentum and Phytolacca acinosa. The availability and use period varied for the species are listed by the users. The study indicated that the knowledge is eroding due to changing social values and non participation of younger generation in collection and processing of such wild leafy vegetables

    Generalized Mittag-Leffler Distributions and Processes for Applications in Astrophysics and Time Series Modeling

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    Geometric generalized Mittag-Leffler distributions having the Laplace transform 11+βlog(1+tα),00\frac{1}{1+\beta\log(1+t^\alpha)},00 is introduced and its properties are discussed. Autoregressive processes with Mittag-Leffler and geometric generalized Mittag-Leffler marginal distributions are developed. Haubold and Mathai (2000) derived a closed form representation of the fractional kinetic equation and thermonuclear function in terms of Mittag-Leffler function. Saxena et al (2002, 2004a,b) extended the result and derived the solutions of a number of fractional kinetic equations in terms of generalized Mittag-Leffler functions. These results are useful in explaining various fundamental laws of physics. Here we develop first-order autoregressive time series models and the properties are explored. The results have applications in various areas like astrophysics, space sciences, meteorology, financial modeling and reliability modeling.Comment: 12 pages, LaTe

    Design and Development of Halogenated Chalcone Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents

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    Purpose: To design and develop halogenated chalcone derivatives and evaluate them as anticancer agents using different cancer cell lines.Methods: Based on in silico design and docking on known target, crystal structure of the complex of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE) with a peptide based inhibitor, (3S )-N-Methanesulfonyl-3- ({1-[N-(2-naphtoyl)-l-valyl]-l-prolyl}amino)-4-oxobutanamide (1BMQ), novel halogenated chalcone derivatives were designed (7a-h) employing LigandFit module of Accelrys (Discovery Studio, 2.1 version). Standard protocols for ligand and protein preparation were employed and their binding orientation validated using (3S)-N-Methanesulfonyl-3-({1-[N-(2-naphtoyl)-l-valyl]-l-prolyl}amino)-4-oxobutanamide (MNO 601), a caspase inhibitor as reference standard. Energy minimized conformers with best dock scores were considered for the identification of interacting amino acid residues with ligands. Selected derivatives were synthesized and analyzed by melting point, 1H NMR, IR and mass spectroscopy. Their evaluation for anticancer activity was carried out using adriamycin, paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil as reference standards on prostrate (PC-3), colon (COLO-205), ovary (OVCAR-5), liver (HEP-2) and neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cancer cell lines, and % growth inhibition and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated.Results: Among synthesized compounds, 7b showed the most promising cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 49.9 ìM on colon cancer cell lines (Colo-205), followed by 7d with an IC50 of 66.6 ìM against ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-5).Conclusion: We report the successful synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro anticancer evaluation of a series of novel halogenated chalcone derivatives against a number of human cancer cell lines. The findings indicate the emergence of new anticancer compounds.Keywords: Halogenated chalcones, Dock scores, Anticancer activity,  Interleukin-1beta converting enzyme

    Loss of Proliferation and Antigen Presentation Activity following Internalization of Polydispersed Carbon Nanotubes by Primary Lung Epithelial Cells

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    Interactions between poly-dispersed acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNTs) and primary lung epithelial (PLE) cells were studied. Peritoneal macrophages (PMs, known phagocytic cells) were used as positive controls in this study. Recovery of live cells from cultures of PLE cells and PMs was significantly reduced in the presence of AF-SWCNTs, in a time and dose dependent manner. Both PLE cells as well as PMs could take up fluorescence tagged AF-SWCNTs in a time dependent manner and this uptake was significantly blocked by cytochalasin D, an agent that blocks the activity of acto-myosin fibers and therefore the phagocytic activity of cells. Confocal microscopic studies confirmed that AF-SWCNTs were internalized by both PLE cells and PMs. Intra-trachially instilled AF-SWCNTs could also be taken up by lung epithelial cells as well as alveolar macrophages. Freshly isolated PLE cells had significant cell division activity and cell cycling studies indicated that treatment with AF-SWCNTs resulted in a marked reduction in S-phase of the cell cycle. In a previously standardized system to study BCG antigen presentation by PLE cells and PMs to sensitized T helper cells, AF-SWCNTs could significantly lower the antigen presentation ability of both cell types. These results show that mouse primary lung epithelial cells can efficiently internalize AF-SWCNTs and the uptake of nanotubes interfered with biological functions of PLE cells including their ability to present BCG antigens to sensitized T helper cells

    Single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) for drought tolerance in pigeonpea (Cajanus spp.)

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    Single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) are microarray-based molecular markers that are detected by hybridization of DNA or cRNA to oligonucleotide probes. With an objective to identify the potential polymorphic markers for drought tolerance in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh], an important legume crop for the semi-arid tropics but deficient in genomic resources, Affymetrix Genome Arrays of soybean (Glycine max), a closely related species of pigeonpea were used on cRNA of six parental genotypes of three mapping populations of pigeonpea segregating for agronomic traits like drought tolerance and pod borer (Helicoverpa armigiera) resistance. By using robustified projection pursuit method on 15 pair-wise comparisons for the six parental genotypes, 5,692 SFPs were identified. Number of SFPs varied from 780 (ICPL 8755 × ICPL 227) to 854 (ICPL 151 × ICPL 87) per parental combination of the mapping populations. Randomly selected 179 SFPs were used for validation by Sanger sequencing and good quality sequence data were obtained for 99 genes of which 75 genes showed sequence polymorphisms. While associating the sequence polymorphisms with SFPs detected, true positives were observed for 52.6% SFPs detected. In terms of parental combinations of the mapping populations, occurrence of true positives was 34.48% for ICPL 151 × ICPL 87, 41.86% for ICPL 8755 × ICPL 227, and 81.58% for ICP 28 × ICPW 94. In addition, a set of 139 candidate genes that may be associated with drought tolerance has been identified based on gene ontology analysis of the homologous pigeonpea genes to the soybean genes that detected SFPs between the parents of the mapping populations segregating for drought tolerance

    Cytotoxic Effect of Poly-Dispersed Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Erythrocytes In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Single wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are hydrophobic and do not disperse in aqueous solvents. Acid functionalization of SWCNTs results in attachment of carboxy and sulfonate groups to carbon atoms and the resulting acid functionalized product (AF-SWCNTs) is negatively charged and disperses easily in water and buffers. In the present study, effect of AF-SWCNTs on blood erythrocytes was examined. Incubation of mouse erythrocytes with AF-SWCNTs and not with control SWCNTs, resulted in a dose and time dependent lysis of erythrocyte. Using fluorescence tagged AF-SWCNTs, binding of AF-SWCNTs with erythrocytes could be demonstrated. Confocal microscopy results indicated that AF-SWCNTs could enter the erythrocytes. Treatment with AF-SWCNTs resulted in exposure of hydrophobic patches on erythrocyte membrane that is indicative of membrane damage. A time and dose dependent increase in externalization of phosphatidylserine on erythrocyte membrane bilayer was also found. Administration of AF-SWCNTs through intravenous route resulted in a transient anemia as seen by a sharp decline in blood erythrocyte count accompanied with a significant drop in blood haemoglobin level. Administration of AF-SWCNTs through intratracheal administration also showed significant decline in RBC count while administration through other routes (gavage and intra-peritoneal) was not effective. By using a recently developed technique of a two step in vivo biotinylation of erythrocytes that enables simultaneous enumeration of young (age <10 days) and old (age>40 days) erythrocytes in mouse blood, it was found that the in vivo toxic effect of AF-SWCNTs was more pronounced on older subpopulation of erythrocytes. Subpopulation of old erythrocytes fell after treatment with AF-SWCNTs but recovered by third day after the intravenous administration of AF-SWCNTs. Taken together our results indicate that treatment with AF-SWCNTs results in acute membrane damage and eventual lysis of erythrocytes. Intravenous administration of AF-SWCNTs resulted in a transient anemia in which older erythrocytes are preferably lysed

    Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies

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    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), as compared to other crop species like cereals, has been very slow. With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput (HTP) genotyping methods, there is a shift in development of genomic resources including molecular markers in these crops. For instance, 2,000 to 3,000 novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers have been developed each for chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Based on Sanger, 454/FLX and Illumina transcript reads, transcriptome assemblies have been developed for chickpea (44,845 transcript assembly contigs, or TACs) and pigeonpea (21,434 TACs). Illumina sequencing of some parental genotypes of mapping populations has resulted in the development of 120 million reads for chickpea and 128.9 million reads for pigeonpea. Alignment of these Illumina reads with respective transcriptome assemblies have provided >10,000 SNPs each in chickpea and pigeonpea. A variety of SNP genotyping platforms including GoldenGate, VeraCode and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays have been developed in chickpea and pigeonpea. By using above resources, the first-generation or comprehensive genetic maps have been developed in the three legume speciesmentioned above. Analysis of phenotyping data together with genotyping data has provided candidate markers for drought-tolerance-related root traits in chickpea, resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and fertility restoration in pigeonpea. Together with these traitassociated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance to fusarium wilt and ascochyta blight in chickpea and resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut. These trait-associated robust markers along with other genomic resources including genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legum
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