23 research outputs found

    Rethinking the economics and the governance of reception of refugees, asylum seekers and other migrants : the case of Italy

    Get PDF
    The significant numbers of arrivals through the Central Mediterranean route to Italy between 2014 and 2017 have put the Italian reception system under pressure, and pushed its rapid expansion. This paper examines how the governance of reception has evolved between 2011 and 2018, a time during which the reception system went through two major yet contrasting reforms while at the same time facing an emergency. Based on desk research and qualitative interviews with reception workers, the paper looks simultaneously at the interplay between the changes in terms of regulations, actors and modalities, and the economic aspects of reception governance. The paper adopts the concept of moral economy of reception, which enables to analyse the evolving context in which are differentiated those deserving and undeserving of reception, and the meaning attached to reception. The changes in the governance of reception has also brought changes in the moral economy of reception, shifting from some form of solidarity to discriminatory moral economy based on a hierarchy of deservedness

    Governing irregular and return migration in the 2020s : European challenges and Asian pacific perspectives

    No full text
    Published online: 23 Feb 2019Most research on irregular migration in Europe has so far developed with a Eurocentric focus not sufficiently engaging with parallel policy and research developments in other world regions. The publication of McAuliffe and Koser's (2017) A Long Way to Go, Irregular Migration Patterns, Processes, Drivers and Decision-Making and Taylor and Lee's (2017) Mobilities of Return: Pacific Perspectives on the Asia Pacific regional challenges of irregular migration and complex mobility offer a welcome opportunity to reflect on related research findings and common challenges for migration and asylum governance in Europe and the Asia Pacific

    Reintegration background report

    Get PDF
    This report accompanying the “Reintegration package” provides the context of return and reintegration in Ethiopia including the current policies, processes and stakeholders involved in reintegration interventions and to analyze the opportunities and gaps in the current system and make recommendations

    Reintegration package for Ethiopia

    Get PDF
    Ethiopia has been facing an increased return of migrants, as a result of mass deportation from countries like Saudi Arabia, The Government of Ethiopia, together with other humanitarian actors successfully managed the return but, due to the absence of a national framework on reintegration, the reintegration component was not addressed. Hence this report presents the recommended approach for developing a reintegration package for return migrants in Ethiopia. This package is expected to serve as a point of reference and practical guide for the Government of Ethiopia, UN agencies, civil society organizations and other stakeholders to develop programs in support of the successful reintegration of returnees, back into their community and labour market

    Criminalizing migrants who steer the dinghies in the Mediterranean : a collateral effect of migration management?

    Get PDF
    Amidst the increased irregular sea migration in the Central Mediterranean in recent years (2014-2017), one issue remained greatly overlooked: that of migrants’ who become involved in steering the dinghies (as driver or helper) bringing them and others from Libya to Italy (scafista). The paper examines some of the contentious questions that arise from the criminalisation of alleged ‘boat drivers’ who are often chosen by the Libyan smugglers among the other migrants and international protection seekers; at times under coercion and threat. Based on case law analysis, as well as information collected through qualitative interviews and desk research, the paper analyses to what extent the conditions under which migrants/international protection seekers are pushed to drive the boat can be taken into consideration to prevent their criminalisation. The penal principle of ‘state of necessity’ – that enables to lift the criminal liability- and the argument that some situations of coercive recruitment of ‘transporters’ may be considered trafficking in persons are discussed

    The intersection of exploitation and coercion in cases of Canadian labour trafficking

    Get PDF
    Internationally, human trafficking intervention, research, and policy-making has leaned towards sex trafficking rather than labour trafficking. Aiming to understand the characteristics of labour trafficking within Canada, a country considered by many to have strong labour protections and clear pathways for labour migration, this article reports on a review of documented cases over the past fifteen years in Canada where labour exploitation intersected with coercion. Our analysis is centred on the notion that this is the crux of what constitutes labour trafficking—coercion being used to facilitate labour exploitation. In total, we collected thirty-six cases, involving an estimated 243 victims, and we placed these within a matrix that crosses gradations of labour exploitation (deception, labour standard violations, and occupational health and safety (OHS) violations) with gradations of coercion (from systemic to direct). We collected these cases through a scan of media, governmental, academic, and legal sources. A new contribution to the literature, this exploitation-coercion matrix helps to highlight limitations in current approaches to the identification and response to labour trafficking in Canada. Our study results demonstrate: 1) the degree to which precarious immigration status is central to labour trafficking; 2) that this trafficking is frequently practised by small business owners in legal employment sectors; and 3) that there is a high presence of men and low presence of minors as victims. These findings contrast with the archetypal portraits found in much of the trafficking media and literature of the trafficking victim as young and female and the trafficker as organized criminal.À l’internationale, l’intervention, la recherche, et le dĂ©veloppement de politiques sur la traite des personnes se sont penchĂ©s sur la traite aux fins d’exploitation sexuelle plutĂŽt que de travail forcĂ©. En tentant de comprendre les caractĂ©ristiques de la traite aux fins de travail forcĂ© au Canada, un pays qui selon plusieurs offre des protections robustes pour les travailleuses et les travailleurs et un parcours clair pour la migration de travail, cet article prĂ©sente les conclusions d’un examen de cas documentĂ©s au cours des quinze derniĂšres annĂ©es au Canada, oĂč l’exploitation au travail et la coercition s’entrecoupent. Notre analyse dĂ©montre qu’il s’agit lĂ  de l’essence de la traite aux fins de travail forcĂ© — la coercition utilisĂ©e pour favoriser l’exploitation au travail. Nous avons recueilli trente-six cas en tout, qui impliquent environ 243 victimes. Nous les avons placĂ©s dans une matrice sur laquelle s’entrecoupent une Ă©chelle relative Ă  l’exploitation au travail (tromperie, violations des normes du travail, et violations des dispositions en matiĂšre de santĂ© et sĂ©curitĂ© au travail) et une Ă©chelle relative Ă  la coercition (de la coercition systĂ©mique Ă  la coercition directe). Nous avons recueilli ces cas en faisant une revue de sources mĂ©diatiques, gouvernementales, universitaires et juridiques. Cette matrice exploitation-coercition constitue une nouvelle contribution Ă  la littĂ©rature et aide Ă  souligner les limites des approches actuelles Ă  la reconnaissance et Ă  la rĂ©ponse Ă  l’exploitation au travail au Canada. Les rĂ©sultats de notre Ă©tude dĂ©montrent : 1) jusqu’à quel point le statut d’immigration prĂ©caire est au centre de l’exploitation au travail ; 2) que ce type de traite est pratiquĂ© frĂ©quemment par les propriĂ©taires de petites entreprises dans des secteurs d’emploi lĂ©gaux ; et 3) que les hommes sont trĂšs nombreux et les mineurs peu nombreux parmi les victimes. Ces conclusions sont diffĂ©rentes de l’archĂ©type de la victime dans les mĂ©dias et la littĂ©rature sur la traite, comme Ă©tant une jeune femme, et de celui du trafiquant, comme Ă©tant un membre du crime organisĂ©

    The Intersection of Exploitation and Coercion in Cases of Canadian Labour Trafficking

    Get PDF
    Internationally, human trafficking intervention, research, and policy-making has leaned towards sex trafficking rather than labour trafficking. Aiming to understand the characteristics of labour trafficking within Canada, a country considered by many to have strong labour protections and clear pathways for labour migration, this article reports on a review of documented cases over the past fifteen years in Canada where labour exploitation intersected with coercion. Our analysis is centred on the notion that this is the crux of what constitutes labour trafficking—coercion being used to facilitate labour exploitation. In total, we collected thirty-six cases, involving an estimated 243 victims, and we placed these within a matrix that crosses gradations of labour exploitation (deception, labour standard violations, and occupational health and safety (OHS) violations) with gradations of coercion (from systemic to direct). We collected these cases through a scan of media, governmental, academic, and legal sources. A new contribution to the literature, this exploitation-coercion matrix helps to highlight limitations in current approaches to the identification and response to labour trafficking in Canada. Our study results demonstrate: 1) the degree to which precarious immigration status is central to labour trafficking; 2) that this trafficking is frequently practised by small business owners in legal employment sectors; and 3) that there is a high presence of men and low presence of minors as victims. These findings contrast with the archetypal portraits found in much of the trafficking media and literature of the trafficking victim as young and female and the trafficker as organized criminal

    Introduction : human trafficking in domestic work in the EU : a special case or a learning ground for the anti-trafficking field?

    No full text
    Domestic work is an example of how gaps in policies (labor, immigration, welfare), social values and norms, and the relational dimension interplay in situations of trafficking. This is the point of departure, the premise, of this Special Issue. Given the peculiar nature of domestic work—being performed in private households and being at the junction of labor market and family—looking at trafficking in this context can contribute to advancing further the understanding of THB. Domestic work presents multifaceted challenges that speak to and inform a better understanding of the various areas and forms of trafficking

    The refugee emergency : assessing the political and policy responses

    No full text
    This contribution was delivered on the occasion of the EUI State of the Union in Florence on 4 May 2017This intervention was part of the recorded SoU afternoon session that took place on 4 May 2017 available on Youtube; move to the part of the video session of your interest within the video recording.Europe is facing its worst refugee emergency since World War II. This has put both existing mechanisms for managing asylum seeking and irregular migration flows, and solidarity among member states to the test. Dealing with the crisis has required a recasting of the EU-Turkey relationship and an overall re-designing of EU foreign policy. The massive flows of asylum seekers have also raised special protection challenges, giving rise to incidents of violent people smuggling. A year after the EU-Turkey Agreement which effectively stopped migration flows entered into force, the time is ripe for a critical mid-term assessment. The aim is to evaluate how adequate the EU and national level political and policy responses to the refugee emergency have been, and to outline some lessons which could inform future responses
    corecore