10,045 research outputs found

    Work stress, life stress, and smoking among rural–urban migrant workers in China

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    Background Stimulated by rapid modernization and industrialization, there is massive rural–urban migration in China. The migrants are highly susceptible to smoking and mental health problems. This study examined the association between both perceived work stress and perceived life stress with smoking behavior among this group during the period of migration. Methods Participants (n = 1,595) were identified through stratified, multi-stage, systematic sampling. Smoking status separated non-smokers from daily and occasional smokers, and migration history, work stress, and life stress were also measured. Analyses were conducted using the Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Two models were utilized. The first was the full model that comprised sociodemographic and migration-related characteristics, as well as the two stress variables. In addressing potential overlap between life and work stress, the second model eliminated one of the two stress variables as appropriate. Results Overall smoking prevalence was 64.9% (95% CI: 62.4-67.2%). In the regression analysis, under the full model, migrants with high perceived life stress showed a 45% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to low-stress counterparts (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05 – 2.06). Applying the second model, which excluded the life stress variable, migrants with high perceived work stress had a 75% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to opposites (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.26–2.45). Conclusions Rural–urban migrant workers manifested a high prevalence of both life stress and work stress. While both forms of stress showed associations with current smoking, life stress appeared to outweigh the impact of work stress. Our findings could inform the design of tobacco control programs that would target Chinese rural–urban migrant workers as a special population

    Comparative Stress Levels among Residents in Three Chinese Provincial Capitals, 2001 and 2008

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    Objectives To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008. Methods Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights. Results Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68–24.12) in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38–24.01) in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB. Conclusion The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups

    Thermochemical sulphate reduction can improve carbonate petroleum reservoir quality

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    Interest in the creation of secondary pore space in petroleum reservoirs has increased because of a need to understand deeper and more complex reservoirs. The creation of new secondary porosity that enhances overall reservoir quality in deeply buried carbonate reservoirs is controversial and some recent studies have concluded it is not an important phenomenon. Here we present petrography, geochemistry, fluid inclusion data, and fluid-rock interaction reaction modeling results from Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Sichuan Basin, China, core samples and explore the relative importance of secondary porosity due to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) during deep burial diagenesis. We find that new secondary pores result from the dissolution of anhydrite and possibly from dissolution of the matrix dolomite. Assuming porosity before TSR was 16 % and the percentage of anhydrite was 6 %, modelling shows that, due to TSR, 1.6 % additional porosity was created that led to permeability increasing from 110 mD (range 72 to 168 mD within a 95% confidence interval) to 264 mD (range 162 to 432 mD within a 95 % confidence interval). Secondary porosity results from the density differences between reactant anhydrite and product calcite, the addition of new water during TSR, and the generation of acidity during the reaction of new H2S with the siderite component in pre-existing dolomite in the reservoir. Fluid pressure was high during TSR, and approached lithostatic pressure in some samples; this transient overpressure may have led to the maintenance of porosity due to the inhibition of compactional processes. An additional 1.6 % porosity is significant for reserve calculations, especially considering that it occurs in conjunction with elevated permeability that results in faster flow rates to the production wells

    TEMPRANILLO is a regulator of juvenility in plants

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    Many plants are incapable of flowering in inductive daylengths during the early juvenile vegetative phase (JVP). Arabidopsis mutants with reduced expression of TEMPRANILLO (TEM), a repressor of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) had a shorter JVP than wild-type plants. Reciprocal changes in mRNA expression of TEM and FT were observed in both Arabidopsis and antirrhinum, which correlated with the length of the JVP. FT expression was induced just prior to the end of the JVP and levels of TEM1 mRNA declined rapidly at the time when FT mRNA levels were shown to increase. TEM orthologs were isolated from antirrhinum (AmTEM) and olive (OeTEM) and were expressed most highly during their juvenile phase. AmTEM functionally complemented AtTEM1 in the tem1 mutant and over-expression of AmTEM prolonged the JVP through repression of FT and CONSTANS (CO). We propose that TEM may have a general role in regulating JVP in herbaceous and woody species

    Growth characteristics in individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta in North America: results from a multicenter study.

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    PurposeOsteogenesis imperfecta (OI) predisposes people to recurrent fractures, bone deformities, and short stature. There is a lack of large-scale systematic studies that have investigated growth parameters in OI.MethodsUsing data from the Linked Clinical Research Centers, we compared height, growth velocity, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in 552 individuals with OI. Height, weight, and BMI were plotted on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention normative curves.ResultsIn children, the median z-scores for height in OI types I, III, and IV were -0.66, -6.91, and -2.79, respectively. Growth velocity was diminished in OI types III and IV. The median z-score for weight in children with OI type III was -4.55. The median z-scores for BMI in children with OI types I, III, and IV were 0.10, 0.91, and 0.67, respectively. Generalized linear model analyses demonstrated that the height z-score was positively correlated with the severity of the OI subtype (P < 0.001), age, bisphosphonate use, and rodding (P < 0.05).ConclusionFrom the largest cohort of individuals with OI, we provide median values for height, weight, and BMI z-scores that can aid the evaluation of overall growth in the clinic setting. This study is an important first step in the generation of OI-specific growth curves

    Incidence of mild cognitive impairment in World Trade Center responders: Long-term consequences of re-experiencing the events on 9/11/2001

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    Objective: This study examined whether World Trade Center (WTC) exposures and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a longitudinal analysis of a prospective cohort study of WTC responders. Methods: Incidence of MCI was assessed in a clinical sample of WTC responders (N = 1800) who were cognitively intact at baseline assessment. Crude incidence rates were calculated and compared to population estimates using standardized incidence ratios. Multivariable analyses used Cox proportional-hazards regression. Results: Responders were 53.1 years old (SD = 7.9) at baseline. Among eligible cognitively intact responders, 255 (14.2%) developed MCI at follow-up. Incidence of MCI was higher than expected based on expectations from prior published research. Incidence was higher among those with increased PTSD symptom severity, and prolonged exposure was a risk factor in apolipoprotein-ε4 carriers. Conclusions: PTSD and prolonged WTC exposures were associated with increased incidence of MCI in WTC responders, results that may portend future high rates of dementia in WTC-exposed responders
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