194 research outputs found

    Strategies Proposed by Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities Partnerships to Prevent Childhood Obesity

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    IntroductionHealthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC) is an initiative of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to prevent obesity among high-risk children by changing local policies, systems, and environments. In 2009, 105 community partnerships applied for funding from HKHC. Later that year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released recommended community strategies to prevent obesity by changing environments and policies. The objective of this analysis was to describe the strategies proposed by the 41 HKHC partnerships that received funding and compare them to the CDC recommendations.MethodsWe analyzed the funded proposals to assess the types and prevalence of the strategies proposed and mapped them onto the CDC recommendations.ResultsThe most prevalent strategies proposed by HKHC-funded partnerships were providing incentives to retailers to locate and serve healthier foods in underserved areas, improving mechanisms for purchasing food from farms, enhancing infrastructure that supports walking and cycling, and improving access to outdoor recreational facilities.ConclusionThe strategies proposed by HKHC partnerships were well aligned with the CDC recommendations. The popular strategies proposed by HKHC partnerships were those for which there were existing examples of successful implementation. Our analysis provides an example of how information from communities, obtained through grant-writing efforts, can be used to assess the status of the field, guide future research, and provide direction for future investments

    Aeroallergen sensitization predicts acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell anaemia

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    Asthma is associated with higher rates of acute chest syndrome (ACS) and vaso-occlusive pain episodes among children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Aeroallergen sensitization is a risk factor for asthma. We hypothesized that aeroallergen sensitization is associated with an increased incidence of hospitalizations for ACS and pain. Participants in a multicentre, longitudinal cohort study, aged 4-18聽years with SCA, underwent skin prick testing to ten aeroallergens. ACS and pain episodes were collected from birth until the end of the follow-up period. The number of positive skin tests were tested for associations with prospective rates of ACS and pain. Multivariable models demonstrated additive effects of having positive skin tests on future rates of ACS (incidence rate ratio (IRR) for each positive test 1路23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1路11-1路36, P聽<聽0路001). Aeroallergen sensitization was not associated with future pain (IRR 1路14, 95%CI 0路97-1路33, P聽=聽0路11). Our study demonstrated that children with SCA and aeroallergen sensitization are at increased risk for future ACS. Future research is needed to determine whether identification of specific sensitizations and allergen avoidance and treatment reduce the risk of ACS for children with SCA

    Lack of insurance coverage and urgent care use for asthma: A retrospective cohort study

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    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic disease with profound impacts upon individuals and the US health care system. Inadequate health care coverage has been associated with more frequent and severe exacerbations of the disease. We examined the relationship between adequacy of health care coverage and use of emergent care of adults with asthma. METHODS: The 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was the source of data on adults with current asthma. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis modeled identifiable factors in predicting urgent or emergent care. RESULTS: Key variables included demographics and information on self-reported gaps in health care coverage. The primary outcome was emergency room or urgent care visits for worsening of asthma symptoms. Of 16,234 subjects nationally with current asthma, 2,195 from eight states had valid responses to a supplemental module asking about emergency room use or urgent care visits because of asthma. Thirty four percent of these individuals required such care in the previous year. Having an interruption in health care coverage in the past year was associated with an increased risk of needed urgent or emergent care (crude Odds Ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence intervals [CI]1.03, 2.1). The association was not statistically significant in the adjusted multivariate model including race/ethnicity, employment status, gender, age, education and the ability to identify a primary physician (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8, 1.8). CONCLUSION: This study provides population-level, generalizable evidence of increased risk of exacerbations of asthma in adults and (1) their demographic characteristics, and (2) continuous adequate health care coverage

    Antigen-Specific IgG ameliorates allergic airway inflammation via Fc纬 receptor IIB on dendritic cells

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>There have been few reports on the role of Fc receptors (FcRs) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in asthma. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of inhibitory FcRs and antigen presenting cells (APCs) in pathogenesis of asthma and to evaluate antigen-transporting and presenting capacity by APCs in the tracheobronchial mucosa.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>In Fc纬RIIB deficient (KO) and C57BL/6 (WT) mice, the effects of intratracheal instillation of antigen-specific IgG were analysed using the model with sensitization and airborne challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). Thoracic lymph nodes instilled with fluorescein-conjugated OVA were analysed by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, we analysed the CD11c<sup>+ </sup>MHC class II<sup>+ </sup>cells which intaken fluorescein-conjugated OVA in thoracic lymph nodes by flow cytometry. Also, lung-derived CD11c<sup>+ </sup>APCs were analysed by flow cytometry. Effects of anti-OVA IgG1 on bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) <it>in vitro </it>were also analysed. Moreover, in Fc纬RIIB KO mice intravenously transplanted dendritic cells (DCs) differentiated from BMDCs of WT mice, the effects of intratracheal instillation of anti-OVA IgG were evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In WT mice, total cells and eosinophils in BAL fluid reduced after instillation with anti-OVA IgG1. Anti-OVA IgG1 suppressed airway inflammation in hyperresponsiveness and histology. In addition, the number of the fluorescein-conjugated OVA in CD11c<sup>+ </sup>MHC class II<sup>+ </sup>cells of thoracic lymph nodes with anti-OVA IgG1 instillation decreased compared with PBS. Also, MHC class II expression on lung-derived CD11c<sup>+ </sup>APCs with anti-OVA IgG1 instillation reduced. Moreover, in vitro, we showed that BMDCs with anti-OVA IgG1 significantly decreased the T cell proliferation. Finally, we demonstrated that the lacking effects of anti-OVA IgG1 on airway inflammation on Fc纬RIIB KO mice were restored with WT-derived BMDCs transplanted intravenously.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Antigen-specific IgG ameliorates allergic airway inflammation via Fc纬RIIB on DCs.</p

    Association of elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration and blood eosinophil count with severe asthma exacerbations

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    Blood eosinophil count (BEC) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentration are established biomarkers in asthma, associated particularly with the risk of exacerbations. We evaluated the relationship of BEC and FeNO as complementary and independent biomarkers of severe asthma exacerbations.This article is freely available via Open Access. Click on the Publisher URL to access the full-text

    Anticipated and experienced discrimination amongst people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

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    BACKGROUND: The unfair treatment of individuals with severe mental illness has been linked to poorer physical and mental health outcomes. Additionally, anticipation of discrimination may lead some individuals to avoid participation in particular life areas, leading to greater isolation and social marginalisation. This study aimed to establish the levels and clinical and socio-demographic associations of anticipated and experienced discrimination amongst those diagnosed with a schizophrenia and comparator severe mental illnesses (bipolar and major depressive disorders). METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of anticipated and experienced discrimination from 202 individuals in South London (47% with schizophrenia, 32% with depression and 20% with bipolar disorder). RESULTS: 93% of the sample anticipated discrimination and 87% of participants had experienced discrimination in at least one area of life in the previous year. There was a significant association between the anticipation and the experience of discrimination. Higher levels of experienced discrimination were reported by those of a mixed ethnicity, and those with higher levels of education. Women anticipated more discrimination than men. Neither diagnosis nor levels of functioning were associated with the extent of discrimination. Clinical symptoms of anxiety, depression and suspiciousness were associated with more experienced and anticipated discrimination respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The unfair treatment of individuals with severe mental illnesses remains unacceptably common. Population level interventions are needed to reduce levels of discrimination and to safeguard individuals. Interventions are also required to assist those with severe mental illness to reduce internalised stigma and social avoidance

    Factors influencing gastrointestinal tract and microbiota immune interaction in preterm infants

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    The role of microbial colonization is indispensable for keeping a balanced immune response in life. However, the events that regulate the establishment of the microbiota, their timing, and the way in which they interact with the host are not yet fully understood. Factors such as gestational age, mode of delivery, environment, hygienic measures, and diet influence the establishment of microbiota in the perinatal period. Environmental microbes constitute the most important group of exogenous stimuli in this critical time frame. However, the settlement of a stable gut microbiota in preterm infants is delayed compared to term infants. Preterm infants have an immature gastrointestinal tract and immune system which predisposes to infectious morbidity. Neonatal microbial dynamics and alterations in early gut microbiota may precede and/or predispose to diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), late-onset sepsis or others. During this critical period, nutrition is the principal contributor for immunological and metabolic development, and microbiological programming. Breast milk is a known source of molecules that act synergistically to protect the gut barrier and enhance the maturation of the gut-related immune response. Host-microbe interactions in preterm infants and the protective role of diet focused on breast milk impact are beginning to be unveiled.M.C. acknowledges a 鈥淩io Hortega鈥 Research Fellowship Grant (CM13/0017) and M.V. acknowledges grants PI11/0313 and RD12/0026/0012 (Red SAMID) from the Instituto Carlos III (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity). M.C.C. and G.P-M. were supported by the grant AGL2013-47420-R from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation.Peer reviewe
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