681 research outputs found

    Resolving the Outer Disks and Halos of Nearby Galaxies

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    In a hierarchical merging scenario, the outer parts of a galaxy are a fossil record of the galaxy's early history. Observations of the outer disks and halos of galaxies thus provide a tool to study individual galaxy histories and test formation theories. Locally, an impressive effort has been made to understand the halo of the Milky Way, Andromeda, and M33. However, due to the stochastic nature of halo formation, a better understanding of this process requires a large sample of galaxies with known halo properties. The GHOSTS project (PI: R. de Jong) aims to characterize the halos and outer portions of 14 nearby (D=4-14 Mpc) spiral galaxies using the Hubble Space Telescope. Detection of individual stars in the outer parts of these galaxies enables us to study both the morphological properties of the galaxies, and determine the stars' metallicity and age.Comment: Contributed talk; to appear in the proceedings of "Galaxies in the Local Volume" Sydney 8-13 July 200

    Neutron depolarization studies of Pd-Ni-Fe-P alloy

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    Bulk metallic glasses based on the quaternary alloy Pd-Ni-Fe-P exhibit interesting phase behavior depending on temperature and applied magnetic field. Previous work has suggested that a range of magnetic phases including paramagnetic, superparamagnetic, ferromagnetic and spin glass can be observed in this system. We have applied one dimensional neutron depolarization to explore the correlation of magnetic moments in Pd40Ni22.5Fe17.5P20 alloy as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. The results provided evidence for correlation lengths of ~ 200 √Ö. The nature of the correlations and the formation mechanism of the induced ferromagnetic phase are discusse

    The long‚Äźterm effectiveness and cost‚Äźeffectiveness of public health interventions; how can we model behavior? A review

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    The effectiveness and cost of a public health intervention is dependent on complex human behaviors, yet health economic models typically make simplified assumptions about behavior, based on little theory or evidence. This paper reviews existing methods across disciplines for incorporating behavior within simulation models, to explore what methods could be used within health economic models and to highlight areas for further research. This may lead to better-informed model predictions. The most promising methods identified which could be used to improve modeling of the causal pathways of behavior-change interventions include econometric analyses, structural equation models, data mining and agent-based modeling; the latter of which has the advantage of being able to incorporate the non-linear, dynamic influences on behavior, including social and spatial networks. Twenty-two studies were identified which quantify behavioral theories within simulation models. These studies highlight the importance of combining individual decision making and interactions with the environment and demonstrate the importance of social norms in determining behavior. However, there are many theoretical and practical limitations of quantifying behavioral theory. Further research is needed about the use of agent-based models for health economic modeling, and the potential use of behavior maintenance theories and data mining

    Methane Flux in Cropland and Adjacent Riparian Buff ers with Different Vegetation Covers

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    While water quality functions of conservation buffers established adjacent to cropped fields have been widely documented, the relative contribution of these re-established perennial plant systems to greenhouse gases has not been completely documented. In the case of methane (CH(4)), these systems have the potential to serve as sinks of CH(4) or may provide favorable conditions for CH(4) production. This study quantifies CH(4) flux from soils of riparian buffer systems comprised of three vegetation types and compares these fluxes with those of adjacent crop fields. We measured soil properties and diel and seasonal variations of CH(4) flux in 7 to 17 yr-old re-established riparian forest buffers, warm-season and cool-season grass filters, and an adjacent crop field located in the Bear Creek watershed in central Iowa. Forest buffer and grass filter soils had significantly lower bulk density (P \u3c 0.01); and higher pH (P \u3c 0.01), total carbon (TC) (P \u3c 0.01), and total nitrogen (TN) (P \u3c 0.01) than crop field soils. There was no significant relationship between CH(4) flux and soil moisture or soil temperature among sites within the range of conditions observed. Cumulative CH(4) flux was -0.80 kg CH(4)-C ha(-1) yr(-1) in the cropped field, -0.46 kg CH(4)-C ha(-1) yr(-1) within the forest buffers, and 0.04 kg CH(4)-C ha(-1) yr(-1) within grass filters, but difference among vegetation covers was not significant. Results suggest that CH(4) flux was not changed after establishment of perennial vegetation on cropped soils, despite significant changes in soil properties

    A functional model, eigenvalues, and finite singular critical points for indefinite Sturm-Liouville operators

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    Eigenvalues in the essential spectrum of a weighted Sturm-Liouville operator are studied under the assumption that the weight function has one turning point. An abstract approach to the problem is given via a functional model for indefinite Sturm-Liouville operators. Algebraic multiplicities of eigenvalues are obtained. Also, operators with finite singular critical points are considered.Comment: 38 pages, Proposition 2.2 and its proof corrected, Remarks 2.5, 3.4, and 3.12 extended, details added in subsections 2.3 and 4.2, section 6 rearranged, typos corrected, references adde

    Spallation reactions. A successful interplay between modeling and applications

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    The spallation reactions are a type of nuclear reaction which occur in space by interaction of the cosmic rays with interstellar bodies. The first spallation reactions induced with an accelerator took place in 1947 at the Berkeley cyclotron (University of California) with 200 MeV deuterons and 400 MeV alpha beams. They highlighted the multiple emission of neutrons and charged particles and the production of a large number of residual nuclei far different from the target nuclei. The same year R. Serber describes the reaction in two steps: a first and fast one with high-energy particle emission leading to an excited remnant nucleus, and a second one, much slower, the de-excitation of the remnant. In 2010 IAEA organized a worskhop to present the results of the most widely used spallation codes within a benchmark of spallation models. If one of the goals was to understand the deficiencies, if any, in each code, one remarkable outcome points out the overall high-quality level of some models and so the great improvements achieved since Serber. Particle transport codes can then rely on such spallation models to treat the reactions between a light particle and an atomic nucleus with energies spanning from few tens of MeV up to some GeV. An overview of the spallation reactions modeling is presented in order to point out the incomparable contribution of models based on basic physics to numerous applications where such reactions occur. Validations or benchmarks, which are necessary steps in the improvement process, are also addressed, as well as the potential future domains of development. Spallation reactions modeling is a representative case of continuous studies aiming at understanding a reaction mechanism and which end up in a powerful tool.Comment: 59 pages, 54 figures, Revie

    An Integrated TCGA Pan-Cancer Clinical Data Resource to Drive High-Quality Survival Outcome Analytics

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    For a decade, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program collected clinicopathologic annotation data along with multi-platform molecular profiles of more than 11,000 human tumors across 33 different cancer types. TCGA clinical data contain key features representing the democratized nature of the data collection process. To ensure proper use of this large clinical dataset associated with genomic features, we developed a standardized dataset named the TCGA Pan-Cancer Clinical Data Resource (TCGA-CDR), which includes four major clinical outcome endpoints. In addition to detailing major challenges and statistical limitations encountered during the effort of integrating the acquired clinical data, we present a summary that includes endpoint usage recommendations for each cancer type. These TCGA-CDR findings appear to be consistent with cancer genomics studies independent of the TCGA effort and provide opportunities for investigating cancer biology using clinical correlates at an unprecedented scale. Analysis of clinicopathologic annotations for over 11,000 cancer patients in the TCGA program leads to the generation of TCGA Clinical Data Resource, which provides recommendations of clinical outcome endpoint usage for 33 cancer types

    Search for displaced vertices arising from decays of new heavy particles in 7 TeV pp collisions at ATLAS