1,180 research outputs found

    Microstates of a Neutral Black Hole in M Theory

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    We consider vacuum solutions in M theory of the form of a five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black hole cross T^6. In a certain limit, these include the five-dimensional neutral rotating black hole (cross T^6). From a IIA standpoint, these solutions carry D0 and D6 charges. We show that there is a weakly coupled D-brane description which precisely reproduces the Hawking-Bekenstein entropy in the extremal limit, even though supersymmetry is completely broken.Comment: 11 pages. v2: microstate counting extended to generic angular moment

    A Survey of Requirements Engineering Methods for Pervasive Services

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    Designing and deploying ubiquitous computing systems, such as those delivering large-scale mobile services, still requires large-scale investments in both development effort as well as infrastructure costs. Therefore, in order to develop the right system, the design process merits a thorough investigation of the wishes of the foreseen user base. Such investigations are studied in the area of requirements engineering (RE). In this report, we describe and compare three requirements engineering methods that belong to one specific form of RE, namely Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering. By mapping these methods to a common framework, we assess their applicability in the field of ubiquitous computing systems

    SN1998bw: The Case for a Relativistic Shock

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    SN1998bw shot to fame by claims of association with GRB980425. Independent of its presumed association with a GRB, this SN is unusual in its radio properties. A simple interpretation of the unusually bright radio emission leads us to the conclusion that there are two shocks in this SN: a slow moving shock containing most of the ejecta and a relativistic shock (Gamma=2) which is responsible for the radio emission. This is the first evidence for the existence of relativistic shocks in supernovae. It is quite plausible that this shock may produce high energy emission (at early times and by inverse Compton scattering). As with other supernovae, we expect radio emission at much later times powered primarily by the slow moving ejecta. This expectation has motivated us to continue monitoring this unusual SN.Comment: A&A (in press), Rome GRB Symposium, Nov. 199

    Actors, actions, and initiative in normative system specification

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    The logic of norms, called deontic logic, has been used to specify normative constraints for information systems. For example, one can specify in deontic logic the constraints that a book borrowed from a library should be returned within three weeks, and that if it is not returned, the library should send a reminder. Thus, the notion of obligation to perform an action arises naturally in system specification. Intuitively, deontic logic presupposes the concept of anactor who undertakes actions and is responsible for fulfilling obligations. However, the concept of an actor has not been formalized until now in deontic logic. We present a formalization in dynamic logic, which allows us to express the actor who initiates actions or choices. This is then combined with a formalization, presented earlier, of deontic logic in dynamic logic, which allows us to specify obligations, permissions, and prohibitions to perform an action. The addition of actors allows us to expresswho has the responsibility to perform an action. In addition to the application of the concept of an actor in deontic logic, we discuss two other applications of actors. First, we show how to generalize an approach taken up by De Nicola and Hennessy, who eliminate from CCS in favor of internal and external choice. We show that our generalization allows a more accurate specification of system behavior than is possible without it. Second, we show that actors can be used to resolve a long-standing paradox of deontic logic, called the paradox of free-choice permission. Towards the end of the paper, we discuss whether the concept of an actor can be combined with that of an object to formalize the concept of active objects

    The Role of Deontic Logic in the Specification of Information Systems

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    In this paper we discuss the role that deontic logic plays in the specification of information systems, either because constraints on the systems directly concern norms or, and even more importantly, system constraints are considered ideal but violable (so-called `softÂż constraints).\ud To overcome the traditional problems with deontic logic (the so-called paradoxes), we first state the importance of distinguishing between ought-to-be and ought-to-do constraints and next focus on the most severe paradox, the so-called Chisholm paradox, involving contrary-to-duty norms. We present a multi-modal extension of standard deontic logic (SDL) to represent the ought-to-be version of the Chisholm set properly. For the ought-to-do variant we employ a reduction to dynamic logic, and show how the Chisholm set can be treated adequately in this setting. Finally we discuss a way of integrating both ought-to-be and ought-to-do reasoning, enabling one to draw conclusions from ought-to-be constraints to ought-to-do ones, and show by an example the use(fulness) of this

    The ATESP 5 GHz radio survey. II. Physical properties of the faint radio population

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    One of the most debated issues about sub-mJy radio sources, which are responsible for the steepening of the 1.4 GHz source counts, is the origin of their radio emission. Particularly interesting is the possibility of combining radio spectral index information with other observational properties to assess whether the sources are triggered by star formation or nuclear activity. The aim of this work is to study the optical and near infrared properties of a complete sample of 131 radio sources with S>0.4 mJy, observed at both 1.4 and 5 GHz as part of the ATESP radio survey. We use deep multi-colour (UBVRIJK) images, mostly taken in the framework of the ESO Deep Public Survey, to optically identify and derive photometric redshifts for the ATESP radio sources. Deep optical coverage and extensive colour information are available for 3/4 of the region covered by the radio sample. Typical depths of the images are U~25, B~26, V~25.4, R~25.5, I~24.3, 19.5<K_s<20.2, J<22.2. Optical/near infrared counterparts are found for ~78% (66/85) of the radio sources in the region covered by the deep multi-colour imaging, and for 56 of these reliable estimates of the redshift and type are derived. We find that many of the sources with flat radio spectra are characterised by high radio-to-optical ratios (R>1000), typical of classical powerful radio galaxies and quasars. Flat-spectrum sources with low R values are preferentially identified with early type galaxies, where the radio emission is most probably triggered by low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. Considering both early type galaxies and quasars as sources with an active nucleus, such sources largely dominate our sample (78%). Flat-spectrum sources associated with early type galaxies are quite compact (d<10-30 kpc), suggesting core-dominated radio emission.Comment: 15 pages, 13 figures, accepted for pubblication in A&

    The ATESP Radio Survey II. The Source Catalogue

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    This paper is part of a series reporting the results of the Australia Telescope ESO Slice Project (ATESP) radio survey obtained at 1400 MHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) over the region covered by the ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. The survey consists of 16 radio mosaics with ~8"x14" resolution and uniform sensitivity (1sigma noise level ~79 microJy) over the whole area of the ESP redshift survey (~26 sq. degrees at decl. -40 degr). Here we present the catalogue derived from the ATESP survey. We detected 2960 distinct radio sources down to a flux density limit of ~0.5 mJy (6sigma), 1402 being sub-mJy sources. We describe in detail the procedure followed for the source extraction and parameterization. The internal accuracy of the source parameters was tested with Monte Carlo simulations and possible systematic effects (e.g. bandwidth smearing) have been quantified.Comment: 14 pages, 14 Postscript figures, Accepted for publication in A&A Suppl. Corrected typos and added Journal Referenc

    HI in Abell 3128

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    We discuss Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) HI 21cm data for the galaxy cluster A3128. Our observations are intentionally relatively shallow, and a blind search through our data cube yields (tentative) detections of only two galaxies, of which one is probably spurious. A3128 is part of the ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey (ENACS); redshifts are available for 193 galaxies in the A3128 region. For 148 of these galaxies the redshifts are such that the HI emission (if any) would lie within our data cube. We use the known redshifts of these galaxies to coadd their spectra and thus improve our sensitivity to HI emission. The technique is fairly successful -- the coadded spectra allow detection of an average mass content of ~ 9x10^8 Msun, almost an order of magnitude lower than for direct detection of individual objects. By dividing the total galaxy sample into subsamples we find that the gas content of late type galaxies that lie outside the X-ray emitting core of the cluster is substantially higher than that of those within the core. Even outside the X-ray emitting region the distribution of gas-rich galaxies in the cluster is not uniform, we find that gas-rich galaxies are concentrated in the east of the cluster. This is consistent with earlier analyses of the kinematics of the galaxies in A3128 which indicate the presence of subclustering. In summary we find that coadding spectra is a powerful tool for the study of HI in cluster galaxies, and suggest that this technique could be applied to substantially increase the redshift range over which such observations could be carried out.Comment: 8pages, 7 figures accepted for publication in A&
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