1,534 research outputs found

    Gauge fields, quantized fluxes and monopole confinement of the honeycomb lattice

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    Electron hopping models on the honeycomb lattice are studied. The lattice consists of two triangular sublattices, and it is non-Bravais. The dual space has non-trivial topology. The gauge fields of Bloch electrons have the U(1) symmetry and thus represent superconducting states in the dual space. Two quantized Abrikosov fluxes exist at the Dirac points and have fluxes 2pi2pi and 2pi-2pi, respectively. We define the non-Abelian SO(3) gauge theory in the extended 3dd dual space and it is shown that a monopole and anti-monoplole solution is stable. The SO(3) gauge group is broken down to U(1) at the 2dd boundary.The Abrikosov fluxes are related to quantized Hall conductance by the topological expression. Based on this, monopole confinement and deconfinement are discussed in relation to time reversal symmetry and QHE. The Jahn-Teller effect is briefly discussed.Comment: 10 pages, 11 figure

    Variational wave functions of a vortex in cyclotron motion

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    In two dimensions the microscopic theory, which provides a basis for the naive analogy between a quantized vortex in a superfluid and an electron in an uniform magnetic field, is presented. A one-to-one correspondence between the rotational states of a vortex in a cylinder and the cyclotron states of an electron in the central gauge is found. Like the Landau levels of an electron, the energy levels of a vortex are highly degenerate. However, the gap between two adjacent energy levels does not only depend on the quantized circulation, but also increases with the energy, and scales with the size of the vortex.Comment: LaTeX, 4 pages, 2 EPS figures, To appear in ``Series on Advances in Quantum Many-Body Theory'' ed. by R.F. Bishop, C.E. Campbell, J.W. Clark and S. Fantoni (World Scientific, 2000

    Crystalline ground states for classical particles

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    Pair interactions whose Fourier transform is nonnegative and vanishes above a wave number K_0 are shown to give rise to periodic and aperiodic infinite volume ground state configurations (GSCs) in any dimension d. A typical three dimensional example is an interaction of asymptotic form cos(K_0 r)/r^4. The result is obtained for densities rho >= rho_d where rho_1=K_0/2pi, rho_2=(sqrt{3}/8)(K_0/pi)^2 and rho_3=(1/8sqrt{2})(K_0/pi)^3. At rho_d there is a unique periodic GSC which is the uniform chain, the triangular lattice and the bcc lattice for d=1,2,3, respectively. For rho>rho_d the GSC is nonunique and the degeneracy is continuous: Any periodic configuration of density rho with all reciprocal lattice vectors not smaller than K_0, and any union of such configurations, is a GSC. The fcc lattice is a GSC only for rho>=(1/6 sqrt{3})(K_0/pi)^3.Comment: final versio

    Resonant atom-field interaction in large-size coupled-cavity arrays

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    We consider an array of coupled cavities with staggered inter-cavity couplings, where each cavity mode interacts with an atom. In contrast to large-size arrays with uniform-hopping rates where the atomic dynamics is known to be frozen in the strong-hopping regime, we show that resonant atom-field dynamics with significant energy exchange can occur in the case of staggered hopping rates even in the thermodynamic limit. This effect arises from the joint emergence of an energy gap in the free photonic dispersion relation and a discrete frequency at the gap's center. The latter corresponds to a bound normal mode stemming solely from the finiteness of the array length. Depending on which cavity is excited, either the atomic dynamics is frozen or a Jaynes-Cummings-like energy exchange is triggered between the bound photonic mode and its atomic analogue. As these phenomena are effective with any number of cavities, they are prone to be experimentally observed even in small-size arrays.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figures. Added 5 mathematical appendice

    Particle-hole symmetry breaking in the pseudogap state of Pb0.55Bi1.5Sr1.6La0.4CuO6+d: A quantum-chemical perspective

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    Two Bi2201 model systems are employed to demonstrate how, beside the Cu-O \sigma-band, a second band of purely O2p\pi character can be made to cross the Fermi level owing to its sensitivity to the local crystal field. This result is employed to explain the particle-hole symmetry breaking across the pseudo-gap recently reported by Shen and co-workers, see M. Hashimoto et al., Nature Physics 6, (2010) 414. Support for a two-bands-on-a-checkerboard candidate mechanism for High-Tc superconductivity is claimed.Comment: 25 pages, 8 figure

    Magnetoconductance of carbon nanotube p-n junctions

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    The magnetoconductance of p-n junctions formed in clean single wall carbon nanotubes is studied in the noninteracting electron approximation and perturbatively in electron-electron interaction, in the geometry where a magnetic field is along the tube axis. For long junctions the low temperature magnetoconductance is anomalously large: the relative change in the conductance becomes of order unity even when the flux through the tube is much smaller than the flux quantum. The magnetoconductance is negative for metallic tubes. For semiconducting and small gap tubes the magnetoconductance is nonmonotonic; positive at small and negative at large fields.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Holstein model and Peierls instability in 1D boson-fermion lattice gases

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    We study an ultracold bose-fermi mixture in a one dimensional optical lattice. When boson atoms are heavier then fermion atoms the system is described by an adiabatic Holstein model, exhibiting a Peierls instability for commensurate fermion filling factors. A Bosonic density wave with a wavenumber of twice the Fermi wavenumber will appear in the quasi one-dimensional system.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Possible Lattice Distortions in the Hubbard Model for Graphene

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    The Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice is a well known model for graphene. Equally well known is the Peierls type of instability of the lattice bond lengths. In the context of these two approximations we ask and answer the question of the possible lattice distortions for graphene in zero magnetic field. The answer is that in the thermodynamic limit only periodic, reflection-symmetric distortions are allowed and these have at most six atoms per unit cell as compared to two atoms for the undistorted lattice.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Spontaneous parity breaking of graphene in the quantum Hall regime

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    We propose that the inversion symmetry of the graphene honeycomb lattice is spontaneously broken via a magnetic field dependent Peierls distortion. This leads to valley splitting of the n=0n=0 Landau level but not of the other Landau levels. Compared to quantum Hall valley ferromagnetism recently discussed in the literature, lattice distortion provides an alternative explanation to all the currently observed quantum Hall plateaus in graphene.Comment: 4 pages, to appear in Phys. Rev. Let

    Dark-field transmission electron microscopy and the Debye-Waller factor of graphene

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    Graphene's structure bears on both the material's electronic properties and fundamental questions about long range order in two-dimensional crystals. We present an analytic calculation of selected area electron diffraction from multi-layer graphene and compare it with data from samples prepared by chemical vapor deposition and mechanical exfoliation. A single layer scatters only 0.5% of the incident electrons, so this kinematical calculation can be considered reliable for five or fewer layers. Dark-field transmission electron micrographs of multi-layer graphene illustrate how knowledge of the diffraction peak intensities can be applied for rapid mapping of thickness, stacking, and grain boundaries. The diffraction peak intensities also depend on the mean-square displacement of atoms from their ideal lattice locations, which is parameterized by a Debye-Waller factor. We measure the Debye-Waller factor of a suspended monolayer of exfoliated graphene and find a result consistent with an estimate based on the Debye model. For laboratory-scale graphene samples, finite size effects are sufficient to stabilize the graphene lattice against melting, indicating that ripples in the third dimension are not necessary.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figure
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