24,140 research outputs found

### Satellite applications to electric-utility communications needs

Significant changes in the Nation's electric power systems are expected to result from the integration of new technology, possible during the next decade. Digital communications for monitor and control, exclusive of protective relaying, are expected to double or triple current traffic. A nationwide estimate of 13 Mb/s traffic is projected. Of this total, 8 Mb/s is attributed to the bulk-power system as it is now being operated (4 Mb/s). This traffic could be accommodated by current communications satellites using 3- to 4.5-m-diameter ground terminals costing $35,000 to$70,000 each. The remaining 5-Mb/s traffic is attributed to new technology concepts integrated into the distribution system. Such traffic is not compatible with current satellite technology because it requires small, low-cost ground terminals. Therefore, a high effective isotropic radiated power satellite, such as the one being planned by NASA for the Land Mobile Satellite Service, is required

### Minimum-error discrimination between three mirror-symmetric states

We present the optimal measurement strategy for distinguishing between three
quantum states exhibiting a mirror symmetry. The three states live in a
two-dimensional Hilbert space, and are thus overcomplete. By mirror symmetry we
understand that the transformation {|+> -> |+>, |-> -> -|->} leaves the set of
states invariant. The obtained measurement strategy minimizes the error
probability. An experimental realization for polarized photons, realizable with
current technology, is suggested.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

### Effects of self-phase modulation on weak nonlinear optical quantum gates

A possible two-qubit gate for optical quantum computing is the parity gate
based on the weak Kerr effect. Two photonic qubits modulate the phase of a
coherent state, and a quadrature measurement of the coherent state reveals the
parity of the two qubits without destroying the photons. This can be used to
create so-called cluster states, a universal resource for quantum computing.
Here, the effect of self-phase modulation on the parity gate is studied,
introducing generating functions for the Wigner function of a modulated
coherent state. For materials with non-EIT-based Kerr nonlinearities, there is
typically a self-phase modulation that is half the magnitude of the cross-phase
modulation. Therefore, this effect cannot be ignored. It is shown that for a
large class of physical implementations of the phase modulation, the quadrature
measurement cannot distinguish between odd and even parity. Consequently, weak
nonlinear parity gates must be implemented with physical systems where the
self-phase modulation is negligable.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

### Flexible Invariants Through Semantic Collaboration

Modular reasoning about class invariants is challenging in the presence of
dependencies among collaborating objects that need to maintain global
consistency. This paper presents semantic collaboration: a novel methodology to
specify and reason about class invariants of sequential object-oriented
programs, which models dependencies between collaborating objects by semantic
means. Combined with a simple ownership mechanism and useful default schemes,
semantic collaboration achieves the flexibility necessary to reason about
complicated inter-object dependencies but requires limited annotation burden
when applied to standard specification patterns. The methodology is implemented
in AutoProof, our program verifier for the Eiffel programming language (but it
is applicable to any language supporting some form of representation
invariants). An evaluation on several challenge problems proposed in the
literature demonstrates that it can handle a variety of idiomatic collaboration
patterns, and is more widely applicable than the existing invariant
methodologies.Comment: 22 page

### Maximum Confidence Quantum Measurements

We consider the problem of discriminating between states of a specified set
with maximum confidence. For a set of linearly independent states unambiguous
discrimination is possible if we allow for the possibility of an inconclusive
result. For linearly dependent sets an analogous measurement is one which
allows us to be as confident as possible that when a given state is identified
on the basis of the measurement result, it is indeed the correct state.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

### Theory of Combined Photoassociation and Feshbach Resonances in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

We model combined photoassociation and Feshbach resonances in a Bose-Einstein
condensate, where the shared dissociation continuum allows for quantum
interference in losses from the condensate, as well as a dispersive-like shift
of resonance. A simple analytical model, based on the limit of weakly bound
molecules, agrees well with numerical experiments that explicitly include
dissociation to noncondensate modes. For a resonant laser and an off-resonant
magnetic field, constructive interference enables saturation of the
photoassociation rate at user-friendly intensities, at a value set by the
interparticle distance. This rate limit is larger for smaller condensate
densities and, near the Feshbach resonance, approaches the rate limit for
magnetoassociation alone. Also, we find agreement with the unitary limit--set
by the condensate size--only for a limited range of near-resonant magnetic
fields. Finally, for a resonant magnetic field and an off-resonant laser,
magnetoassociation displays similar quantum interference and a dispersive-like
shift. Unlike photoassociation, interference and the fieldshift in resonant
magnetoassociation is tunable with both laser intensity and detuning. Also, the
dispersive-like shift of the Feshbach resonance depends on the size of the
Feshbach molecule, and is a signature of non-universal physics in a strongly
interacting system.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures, 82 reference

### Maximum fidelity retransmission of mirror symmetric qubit states

In this paper we address the problem of optimal reconstruction of a quantum state from the result of a single measurement when the original quantum state is known to be a member of some specified set. A suitable figure of merit for this process is the fidelity, which is the probability that the state we construct on the basis of the measurement result is found by a subsequent test to match the original state. We consider the maximisation of the fidelity for a set of three mirror symmetric qubit states. In contrast to previous examples, we find that the strategy which minimises the probability of erroneously identifying the state does not generally maximise the fidelity

### Simulation of large turbulent structures with the parabolic Navier-Stokes equations

The theoretical basis for well posed marching of a Parabolic Navier-Stokes (PNS) computational technique for supersonic flow is discussed and examples given to verify the analysis. It is demonstrated that stable computations can be made even with very small steps in the marching direction. The method is applied to cones at large angle of attack in high Reynolds number, supersonic flow. Streamline trajectories generated from the numerical solutions demonstrate the development of vortex structures on the lee side of the cone

### On the Quantum Phase Operator for Coherent States

In papers by Lynch [Phys. Rev. A41, 2841 (1990)] and Gerry and Urbanski
[Phys. Rev. A42, 662 (1990)] it has been argued that the phase-fluctuation
laser experiments of Gerhardt, B\"uchler and Lifkin [Phys. Lett. 49A, 119
(1974)] are in good agreement with the variance of the Pegg-Barnett phase
operator for a coherent state, even for a small number of photons. We argue
that this is not conclusive. In fact, we show that the variance of the phase in
fact depends on the relative phase between the phase of the coherent state and
the off-set phase $\phi_0$ of the Pegg-Barnett phase operator. This off-set
phase is replaced with the phase of a reference beam in an actual experiment
and we show that several choices of such a relative phase can be fitted to the
experimental data. We also discuss the Noh, Foug\`{e}res and Mandel [Phys.Rev.
A46, 2840 (1992)] relative phase experiment in terms of the Pegg-Barnett phase
taking post-selection conditions into account.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figures. Typographical errors and misprints have been
corrected. The outline of the paper has also been changed. Physica Scripta
(in press

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