15,080 research outputs found

    Congress’s War Powers and the Political Question Doctrine After Smith v. Obama

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    More than seventeen years after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States continues to battle terrorist organizations inspired by or derived from al Qaeda under the legal aegis of the 2001 Authorization for the Use of Military Force. The government has interpreted this law as providing expansive authority to conduct military operations against actors that did not even exist in 2001, including the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (“ISIS”). Congress has largely supported this effort in annual authorizing legislation and by funding the campaign against ISIS. Despite this permissive legal environment, the government pressed for even greater flexibility in Smith v. Obama , a 2016 challenge to the legal basis for the anti-ISIS campaign, arguing that the war powers are subject to the political question doctrine and thus outside the purview of the courts. The district court accepted this argument, contravening recent Supreme Court decisions that narrow the doctrine’s scope. In doing so, the Smith court cast doubt on the primacy of Congress in bringing the United States into war. In response, this Note offers three insights. First, it assesses historical decisions in cases implicating executive branch war powers in light of the modern political question doctrine. Second, it critiques the Smith court’s failure to squarely confront the separation of powers questions presented by the case. Finally, it offers a series of recommendations for Congress and the courts to avoid the pitfalls of the political question doctrine in similar cases in the future

    Computers for simulation of space vehicle systems

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    Computerized simulation of space vehicle system

    A new second-order integration algorithm for simulating mechanical dynamic systems

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    A new integration algorithm which has the simplicity of Euler integration but exhibits second-order accuracy is described. In fixed-step numerical integration of differential equations for mechanical dynamic systems the method represents displacement and acceleration variables at integer step times and velocity variables at half-integer step times. Asymptotic accuracy of the algorithm is twice that of trapezoidal integration and ten times that of second-order Adams-Bashforth integration. The algorithm is also compatible with real-time inputs when used for a real-time simulation. It can be used to produce simulation outputs at double the integration frame rate, i.e., at both half-integer and integer frame times, even though it requires only one evaluation of state-variable derivatives per integration step. The new algorithm is shown to be especially effective in the simulation of lightly-damped structural modes. Both time-domain and frequency-domain accuracy comparisons with traditional integration methods are presented. Stability of the new algorithm is also examined

    Math modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary-wing aircraft

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    Mathematical modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary wing aircraft is discussed. Error analysis in the digital simulation of dynamic systems, such as rotary wing aircraft is described. The method for digital simulation of nonlinearities with discontinuities, such as exist in typical flight control systems and rotor blade hinges, is discussed

    Virtual Capstone Design Teams: Preparing for Global Innovation (Conference proceeding)

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    Global innovation requires collaboration between groups of people located in different parts of the world, and is a growing trend in industry. Virtual teams are often used to manage new product development projects. These teams are similar to traditional teams but are geographically separated and rely heavily on virtual methods of communication (email, Skype, teleconferencing, etc.) instead of regular face-to-face meetings. Experience working as a member of a virtual capstone design team can help prepare students for this growing trend. To begin preparing students for work on virtual teams in industry, we co-advised two virtual capstone design projects with students from Marquette University and Smith College. This paper describes our experience with managing two virtual capstone design project teams across institutions. Presented here are the challenges we encountered, the lessons we learned as a result of this experience, as well our recommendations for others who might want to include virtual project teams in their capstone design courses. We also include retrospective feedback from the students on these teams regarding their perceived value of their virtual team experience to their careers in engineering

    Aeroplane design study STOL airliner (A71). Part 1- configuration description and data

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    The interest in STOL airliners was reflected in the choice of a 100-118 passenger short range aircraft of this type as the 1971 design project. In addition to the use of the study for detailed investigation by the students of Aircraft Design it also served as the basis for an investigation of the low speed lift and control problems of STOL aircraft. This report is concerned with a description of the configuration adopted and specification of geometric and aerodynamic data. As such it is the first part of the complete reporting of the investigation, subsequent parts being concerned with the more detailed work. The aircraft was designed to operate from 2000 ft long single runways and have a cruising speed of up to 11 - 0.83 at 30,000 ft altitude. The estimated gross weight is 115,000 lb and when landing at 100,000 lb weight the approach speed is 79 knots. The high lift coefficients necessitated by this are obtained either by externally blown jet flaps or an augmenter wing arrangement

    Virtual Capstone Design Teams: Preparing for Global Innovation (Journal article)

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    Global innovation requires collaboration between groups of people located in different parts of the world, and is a growing trend in industry. Virtual teams are often used to manage new product development projects. These teams are similar to traditional teams but are geographically separated and rely heavily on virtual methods of communication (email, Skype, teleconferencing, etc.) instead of regular face-to-face meetings. Experience working as a member of a virtual capstone design team can help prepare students for this growing trend. To begin preparing students for work on virtual teams in industry, we co-advised two virtual capstone design projects with students from Marquette University and Smith College. This paper describes our experience with managing two virtual capstone design project teams across institutions. Presented here are the challenges we encountered, the lessons we learned as a result of this experience, as well our recommendations for others who might want to include virtual project teams in their capstone design courses. We also include retrospective feedback from the students on these teams regarding their perceived value of their virtual team experience to their careers in engineering

    Evolutionary Models of Super-Earths and Mini-Neptunes Incorporating Cooling and Mass Loss

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    We construct models of the structural evolution of super-Earth- and mini-Neptune-type exoplanets with hydrogen-helium envelopes, incorporating radiative cooling and XUV-driven mass loss. We conduct a parameter study of these models, focusing on initial mass, radius, and envelope mass fractions, as well as orbital distance, metallicity, and the specific prescription for mass loss. From these calculations, we investigate how the observed masses and radii of exoplanets today relate to the distribution of their initial conditions. Orbital distance and initial envelope mass fraction are the most important factors determining planetary evolution, particular radius evolution. Initial mass also becomes important below a "turnoff mass," which varies with orbital distance, with mass-radius curves being approximately flat for higher masses. Initial radius is the least important parameter we study, with very little difference between the hot start and cold start limits after an age of 100 Myr. Model sets with no mass loss fail to produce results consistent with observations, but a plausible range of mass loss scenarios is allowed. In addition, we present scenarios for the formation of the Kepler-11 planets. Our best fit to observations Kepler-11b and Kepler-11c involves formation beyond the snow line, after which they moved inward, circularized, and underwent a reduced degree mass loss.Comment: 17 pages, 18 figures, 1 table, Accepted to Ap
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