1,962 research outputs found

    Reduced CD40L expression on ex vivo activated CD4+T-lymphocytes from patients with excellent renal allograft function measured with a rapid whole blood flow cytometry procedure

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    Background: The CD40-CD40L (CD154) costimulatory pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of kidney allograft rejection. In renal transplant biopsies, CD4+ CD40L+ graft-infiltrating cells were detected during chronic rejection in contrast to acute rejection episodes. Using a rapid noninvasive FACS procedure, we were able to demonstrate CD40L upregulation in peripheral blood of patients with chronic renal allograft dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Whole blood from recipients of renal allografts was stimulated with PMA and ion-omycin and measured by flow cytometry. Patients were assigned to three groups based on transplant function. Group 1: 26 patients with excellent renal transplant function; group 2: 28 patients with impaired transplant function; group 3: 14 patients with chronic allograft dysfunction and group 4: 8 healthy controls. Results: The median percentage +/-SEM of CD4+/ CD40L+ cells stimulated ex vivo at 10 ng/ml PMA was as follows: group 1: 28.3 +/- 4.1%; group 2: 18.4 +/- 2.4%; group 3: 50.1 +/- 5.0% and group 4: 40.4 +/- 3.4%. Subdivisions of groups 2 and 3 resulted in different CD40L expression patterns. Patients with increased serum creatinine since the initial phase after transplantation ( groups 2a and 3a) revealed a higher percentage of CD4+ CD40L+ cells than patients showing a gradual increase over time ( groups 2b and 3b). Consequently, patients of group 3a exhibited a significantly reduced transplant function compared with those of group 3b. Conclusion: After PMA + ionomycin stimulation, patients with excellent kidney graft function displayed significantly reduced expression of CD40L surface molecules on CD4+ cells early after transplantation. Those with a chronic dysfunction of the renal graft showed significantly more CD4+ cells expressing CD40L compared to the other transplanted groups. These results demonstrate that the percentage of CD4+ CD40L+ cells stimulated ex vivo in peripheral blood may be a valuable marker for chronic allograft nephropathy. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Detailed analysis of the variability of peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 in German patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a case control study

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    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) genotypes were shown to influence susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) in the Japanese population. Such an association could not previously be confirmed in different European populations. In the present study, we analysed exons 2 - 4 of PADI4 in 102 German RA patients and 102 healthy individuals to study the influence of PADI4 variability on RA susceptibility by means of haplotype-specific DNA sequencing. Analyses of the influence of PADI4 and HLA-DRB1 genotypes on disease activity and on levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were performed. Comparing the frequencies of PADI4 haplotype 4 (padi4\_89* G, padi4\_90* T, padi4\_92* G, padi4\_94* T, padi4\_104* C, padi4\_95* G, padi4\_96* T) ( patients, 14.7%; controls, 7.8%; odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.1 - 3.8) and carriers of this haplotype ( patients, 27.5%; controls, 13.7%; odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.2 - 4.8), a significant positive association of PADI4 haplotype 4 with RA could be demonstrated. Other PADI4 haplotypes did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Regarding the individual PADI4 variants, padi4\_89 ( A. G), padi4\_90 (C --> T), and padi4\_94 (C --> T) were significantly associated with RA ( patients, 49.5%; controls, 38.7%; odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.1 - 2.3). Considering novel PADI4 variants located in or near to exons 2, 3, and 4, no quantitative or qualitative differences between RA patients (8.8%) and healthy controls (10.8%) could be demonstrated. While the PADI4 genotype did not influence disease activity and the anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody level, the presence of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope was significantly associated with higher anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody levels ( P = 0.033). The results of this small case - control study support the hypothesis that variability of the PADI4 gene may influence susceptibility to RA in the German population. Quantitative or qualitative differences in previously undefined PADI4 variants between patients and controls could not be demonstrated

    Rheological Microscopy: Local Mechanical Properties from Microrheology

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    We demonstrate how tracer microrheology methods can be extended to study submicron scale variations in the viscoelastic response of soft materials; in particular, a semidilute solution of lambda-DNA. The polymer concentration is depleted near the surfaces of the tracer particles, within a distance comparable to the polymer correlation length. The rheology of this microscopic layer alters the tracers’ motion and can be precisely quantified using one- and two-point microrheology. Interestingly, we found this mechanically distinct layer to be twice as thick as the layer of depleted concentration, likely due to solvent drainage through the locally perturbed polymer structure

    Comparison of seven methods for producing Affymetrix expression scores based on False Discovery Rates in disease profiling data

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    BACKGROUND: A critical step in processing oligonucleotide microarray data is combining the information in multiple probes to produce a single number that best captures the expression level of a RNA transcript. Several systematic studies comparing multiple methods for array processing have used tightly controlled calibration data sets as the basis for comparison. Here we compare performances for seven processing methods using two data sets originally collected for disease profiling studies. An emphasis is placed on understanding sensitivity for detecting differentially expressed genes in terms of two key statistical determinants: test statistic variability for non-differentially expressed genes, and test statistic size for truly differentially expressed genes. RESULTS: In the two data sets considered here, up to seven-fold variation across the processing methods was found in the number of genes detected at a given false discovery rate (FDR). The best performing methods called up to 90% of the same genes differentially expressed, had less variable test statistics under randomization, and had a greater number of large test statistics in the experimental data. Poor performance of one method was directly tied to a tendency to produce highly variable test statistic values under randomization. Based on an overall measure of performance, two of the seven methods (Dchip and a trimmed mean approach) are superior in the two data sets considered here. Two other methods (MAS5 and GCRMA-EB) are inferior, while results for the other three methods are mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Choice of processing method has a major impact on differential expression analysis of microarray data. Previously reported performance analyses using tightly controlled calibration data sets are not highly consistent with results reported here using data from human tissue samples. Performance of array processing methods in disease profiling and other realistic biological studies should be given greater consideration when comparing Affymetrix processing methods

    A dual process account of creative thinking

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    This article explicates the potential role played by type 1 thinking (automatic, fast) and type 2 thinking (effortful, logical) in creative thinking. The relevance of Evans's (2007) models of conflict of dual processes in thinking is discussed with regards to creative thinking. The role played by type 1 thinking and type 2 thinking during the different stages of creativity (problem finding and conceptualization, incubation, illumination, verification and dissemination) is discussed. It is proposed that although both types of thinking are active in creativity, the extent to which they are active and the nature of their contribution to creativity will vary between stages of the creative process. Directions for future research to test this proposal are outlined; differing methodologies and the investigation of different stages of creative thinking are discussed. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

    Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination

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    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission

    Decision-Making Ontology for Information System Engineering

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    International audienceInformation Systems (IS) engineering (ISE) processes contain steps where decisions must be made. Moreover, the growing role of IS in organizations involves requirements for ISE such as quality, cost and time. Considering these aspects implies that the number of researches dealing with decision-making (DM) in ISE increasingly grows. As DM becomes widespread in the ISE field, it is necessary to build a representation, shared between researchers and practitioners, of DM concepts and their relations with DM problems in ISE. In this paper, we present a DM ontology which aims at formalizing DM knowledge. Its goal is to enhance DM and to support DM activities in ISE. This ontology is illustrated within the requirements engineering field

    The Role of Gamma-Band Activity in the Representation of Faces: Reduced Activity in the Fusiform Face Area in Congenital Prosopagnosia

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    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) describes an impairment in face processing that is presumably present from birth. The neuronal correlates of this dysfunction are still under debate. In the current paper, we investigate high-frequent oscillatory activity in response to faces in persons with CP. Such neuronal activity is thought to reflect higher-level representations for faces.Source localization of induced Gamma-Band Responses (iGBR) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to establish the origin of oscillatory activity in response to famous and unknown faces which were presented in upright and inverted orientation. Persons suffering from congenital prosopagnosia (CP) were compared to matched controls.Corroborating earlier research, both groups revealed amplified iGBR in response to upright compared to inverted faces predominately in a time interval between 170 and 330 ms and in a frequency range from 50-100 Hz. Oscillatory activity upon known faces was smaller in comparison to unknown faces, suggesting a "sharpening" effect reflecting more efficient processing for familiar stimuli. These effects were seen in a wide cortical network encompassing temporal and parietal areas involved in the disambiguation of homogenous stimuli such as faces, and in the retrieval of semantic information. Importantly, participants suffering from CP displayed a strongly reduced iGBR in the left fusiform area compared to control participants.In sum, these data stress the crucial role of oscillatory activity for face representation and demonstrate the involvement of a distributed occipito-temporo-parietal network in generating iGBR. This study also provides the first evidence that persons suffering from an agnosia actually display reduced gamma band activity. Finally, the results argue strongly against the view that oscillatory activity is a mere epiphenomenon brought fourth by rapid eye-movements (micro saccades)

    Use of SF6 to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the upper ocean

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    The highest concentrations of anthropogenic carbon (C_ant) are found in the upper layers of the world ocean. However, this is where seasonal variability of inorganic carbon and related parameters due to thermal and biological effects complicates use of back-calculation approaches for C ant . Tracer based approaches to C_ant estimation are unaffected by biological variability and have found wide application. However, slow-down, even reversal, of the atmospheric growth of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) restricts use of these tracers for C ant estimation for waters ventilated since the mid 1990s. Here we apply SF6, a tracer that continues to increase in the atmosphere, as a basis for the C_ant estimation, using samples collected in the midlatitude North Atlantic in 2004. C ant estimates derived from water mass transit time distributions (TTDs) calculated with SF6 are compared to those based on CFC-12. For recently ventilated waters (pCFC-12 > ∼450 ppt), the uncertainty of SF6 based estimates of C_ant is ∼6 μmol kg−1 less than that of CFC-12 based estimates. CFC-12 based estimates remain more reliable for older (deeper) water masses, as a result of the longer input history and more readily detectable concentrations of CFC-12. Historical data suggest that the near-surface saturation of CFC-12 has increased over time, in inverse proportion to its atmospheric growth rate. Use of a time-dependent saturation of CFC-12 in TTD calculations appears to provide more reliable estimation of C_ant
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