1,061 research outputs found

    On the Sensitivity of a Hollow Sphere as a Multi-modal Resonant Gravitational Wave Detector

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    We present a numerical analysis to simulate the response of a spherical resonant gravitational wave detector and to compute its sensitivity. Under the assump- tion of optimal filtering, we work out the sensitivity curve for a sphere first taking into account only a single transducer, and then using a coherent analysis of the whole set of transducers.Comment: 24 pages, 11 figures, published versio

    Diabetes alone should not be a reason for withholding adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer

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    Background: With increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and colon cancer, the number of patients suffering from both diseases is growing, and physicians are being faced with complicated treatment decisions. Objective: To investigate the association between diabetes and treatment/course of stage III colon cancer and the association between colon cancer and course of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Additional information was collected from the medical records of all patients with both stage III colon cancer and diabetes (n=201) and a random sample of stage III colon cancer patients without diabetes (n=206) in the area of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry (1998–2007). Results: Colon cancer patients without diabetes were more likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy compared with diabetic colon cancer patients (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2–2.7). After adjustment for age, this difference was borderline significant (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0–2.6). Diabetic patients did not have: significantly more side-effects from surgery or adjuvant chemotherapy; more recurrence from colon cancer; significantly shorter time interval until recurrence; or a poorer disease-free survival or overall survival. Age and withholding of adjuvant chemotherapy were most predictive of all-cause mortality. After colon cancer diagnosis, the dose of antiglycaemic medications was increased in 22% of diabetic patients, resulting in significantly lower glycaemic indexes than before colon cancer diagnosis. Conclusions: Since diabetic patients did not have more side-effects of adjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy had a positive effect on survival for both patients with and without diabetes, diabetes alone should not be a reason for withholding adjuvant chemotherapy.Journal of Comorbidity 2011;1(1):19–2

    Neutron optical beam splitter from holographically structured nanoparticle-polymer composites

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    We report a breakthrough in the search for versatile diffractive elements for cold neutrons. Nanoparticles are spatially arranged by holographical means in a photopolymer. These grating structures show remarkably efficient diffraction of cold neutrons up to about 50% for effective thicknesses of only 200 micron. They open up a profound perspective for next generation neutron-optical devices with the capability to tune or modulate the neutron diffraction efficiency.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    An electronic application for rapidly calculating Charlson comorbidity score

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    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty regarding comorbid illness, and ability to tolerate aggressive therapy has led to minimal enrollment of elderly cancer patients into clinical trials and often substandard treatment. Increasingly, comorbid illness scales have proven useful in identifying subgroups of elderly patients who are more likely to tolerate and benefit from aggressive therapy. Unfortunately, the use of such scales has yet to be widely integrated into either clinical practice or clinical trials research. METHODS: This article reviews evidence for the validity of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) in oncology and provides a Microsoft Excel (MS Excel) Macro for the rapid and accurate calculation of CCI score. The interaction of comorbidity and malignant disease and the validation of the Charlson Index in oncology are discussed. RESULTS: The CCI score is based on one year mortality data from internal medicine patients admitted to an inpatient setting and is the most widely used comorbidity index in oncology. An MS Excel Macro file was constructed for calculating the CCI score using Microsoft Visual Basic. The Macro is provided for download and dissemination. The CCI has been widely used and validated throughout the oncology literature and has demonstrated utility for most major cancers. The MS Excel CCI Macro provides a rapid method for calculating CCI score with or without age adjustments. The calculator removes difficulty in score calculation as a limitation for integration of the CCI into clinical research. The simple nature of the MS Excel CCI Macro and the CCI itself makes it ideal for integration into emerging electronic medical records systems. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing elderly population and concurrent increase in oncologic disease has made understanding the interaction between age and comorbid illness on life expectancy increasingly important. The MS Excel CCI Macro provides a means of increasing the use of the CCI scale in clinical research with the ultimate goal of improving determination of optimal treatments for elderly cancer patients

    An inexpensive nonlinear medium for intense ultrabroadband pulse characterization

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    The ability of pellets made up of compressed iron iodate nanocrystals to frequency-double the whole visible spectrum is demonstrated. We suggest their use for complete characterization of intense ultrabroadband laser pulse

    Comorbidity in older adults with cancer

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    Comorbidity is an issue of growing importance due to changing demographics and the increasing number of adults over the age of 65 with cancer. The best approach to the clinical management and decision-making in older adults with comorbid conditions remains unclear. In May 2015, the Cancer and Aging Research Group in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute and National Institute on Aging met to discuss the design and implementation of intervention studies in older adults with cancer. A presentation and discussion on comorbidity measurement, interventions, and future research was included. In this article we discuss the relevance of comorbidities in cancer, examine the commonly used tools to measure comorbidity, and discuss the future direction of comorbidity research. Incorporating standardized comorbidity measurement, relaxing clinical trial eligibility criteria, and utilizing novel trial designs are critical to developing a larger and more generalizable evidence base to guide the management of these patients. Creating or adapting comorbidity management strategies for use in older adults with cancer is necessary to define optimal care for this growing population

    Geriatric assessment with management in cancer care: Current evidence and potential mechanisms for future research

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    Older adults with cancer represent a complex patient population. Geriatric assessment (GA) is recommended to evaluate the medical and supportive care needs of this group. “GA with management” is a term encompassing the resultant medical decisions and interventions implemented in response to vulnerabilities identified on GA. In older, non-cancer patients, GA with management has been shown to improve a variety of outcomes, such as reducing functional decline and health care utilization. However, the role of GA with management in the older adult with cancer is less well established. Rigorous clinical trials of GA with management are necessary to develop an evidence base and support its use in the routine oncology care of older adults. At the recent U-13 conference, “Design and Implementation of Intervention Studies to Improve or Maintain Quality of Survivorship in Older and/or Frail Adults with Cancer,” a session was dedicated to developing research priorities in GA with management. Here we summarize identified knowledge gaps in GA with management studies for older patients with cancer and propose areas for future research

    Protons in near earth orbit

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    The proton spectrum in the kinetic energy range 0.1 to 200 GeV was measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) during space shuttle flight STS-91 at an altitude of 380 km. Above the geomagnetic cutoff the observed spectrum is parameterized by a power law. Below the geomagnetic cutoff a substantial second spectrum was observed concentrated at equatorial latitudes with a flux ~ 70 m^-2 sec^-1 sr^-1. Most of these second spectrum protons follow a complicated trajectory and originate from a restricted geographic region.Comment: 19 pages, Latex, 7 .eps figure

    Search for antihelium in cosmic rays

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    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) was flown on the space shuttle Discovery during flight STS-91 in a 51.7 degree orbit at altitudes between 320 and 390 km. A total of 2.86 * 10^6 helium nuclei were observed in the rigidity range 1 to 140 GV. No antihelium nuclei were detected at any rigidity. An upper limit on the flux ratio of antihelium to helium of < 1.1 * 10^-6 is obtained.Comment: 18 pages, Latex, 9 .eps figure

    Search for Branons at LEP

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    We search, in the context of extra-dimension scenarios, for the possible existence of brane fluctuations, called branons. Events with a single photon or a single Z-boson and missing energy and momentum collected with the L3 detector in e^+ e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies sqrt{s}=189-209$ GeV are analysed. No excess over the Standard Model expectations is found and a lower limit at 95% confidence level of 103 GeV is derived for the mass of branons, for a scenario with small brane tensions. Alternatively, under the assumption of a light branon, brane tensions below 180 GeV are excluded
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