10,742 research outputs found

    The formation of Y' Phase in directionally solidified in 738 alloy

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    Contractual Tradeoffs and SMEs Choice of Organizational Form, A View from U.S. and French History, 1830-2000

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    Today the vast majority of multi-owner firms in the United States are corporations, but that was not the case in the past. Before the advent of the income tax, tort litigation, and significant federal regulation, entrepreneurs more often than not chose to organize as partnerships, a form that economists consider seriously flawed. Why would they make such a terrible mistake? We begin by noting that corporations created new types of contracting problems for businesses at the same time as they solved problems afflicting partnerships. We then model the tradeoffs involved in the choice of corporations versus partnerships and confirm that the model’s assumptions are consistent with U.S. legal rules up through the 1940s. The model implies that partnerships and corporations are complementary organizational forms, and we show that data from the U.S. Census of Manufactures strongly supports that implication. We also verify that the model’s assumptions hold for the broader set of organizational choices available under the French Code de Commerce and use data on multi-owner firms registered in Paris in the 1830s and 1840s to demonstrate the complementary character of the basic forms. Despite much literature emphasizing the fundamentally different environments for business associated with the French and U.S. legal regimes, the basic calculus underpinning the choice of organizational form was the same in both countries.

    Homogeneous reactions of hydrocarbons, silane, and chlorosilanes in radiofrequency plasmas at low pressures

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    The ion-molecule and radical-molecule mechanisms are responsible for the dissociation of hydrocarbon, silane, and chlorosilane monomers and the formation of polymerized species, respectively, in an RF plasma discharge. In a plasma containing a mixture of monomer and argon the rate-determining step for both dissociation and polymerization is governed by an ion-molecule type of interaction. Adding hydrogen or ammonia to the monomer-argon mixture transforms the rate-determining step from an ion-molecule interaction to a radical-molecule interaction for both monomer dissociation and polymerization

    A Complete Characterization of Irreducible Cyclic Orbit Codes and their Pl\"ucker Embedding

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    Constant dimension codes are subsets of the finite Grassmann variety. The study of these codes is a central topic in random linear network coding theory. Orbit codes represent a subclass of constant dimension codes. They are defined as orbits of a subgroup of the general linear group on the Grassmannian. This paper gives a complete characterization of orbit codes that are generated by an irreducible cyclic group, i.e. a group having one generator that has no non-trivial invariant subspace. We show how some of the basic properties of these codes, the cardinality and the minimum distance, can be derived using the isomorphism of the vector space and the extension field. Furthermore, we investigate the Pl\"ucker embedding of these codes and show how the orbit structure is preserved in the embedding.Comment: submitted to Designs, Codes and Cryptograph