228 research outputs found

    A diagnostic multiplex PCR scheme for identification of plant-associated bacteria of the genus Pantoea.

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    Unrefereed reprintThe genus Pantoea forms a complex of more than 25 species, among which several cause diseases of several crop plants, including rice. Notably, strains of Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii have been found to cause bacterial leaf blight of rice in Togo and Benin, while other authors have observed that Pantoea agglomerans can also cause bacterial leaf blight of rice. The contribution of these and perhaps other species of Pantoea to plant diseases and yield losses of crop plants is currently not well documented, partly due to the lack of efficient diagnostic tools

    AnnoTALE : bioinformatics tools for identification, annotation, and nomenclature of TALEs from Xanthomonas genomic sequences

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    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are virulence factors, produced by the bacterial plant-pathogen Xanthomonas, that function as gene activators inside plant cells. Although the contribution of individual TALEs to infectivity has been shown, the specific roles of most TALEs, and the overall TALE diversity in Xanthomonas spp. is not known. TALEs possess a highly repetitive DNA-binding domain, which is notoriously difficult to sequence. Here, we describe an improved method for characterizing TALE genes by the use of PacBio sequencing. We present 'AnnoTALE', a suite of applications for the analysis and annotation of TALE genes from Xanthomonas genomes, and for grouping similar TALEs into classes. Based on these classes, we propose a unified nomenclature for Xanthomonas TALEs that reveals similarities pointing to related functionalities. This new classification enables us to compare related TALEs and to identify base substitutions responsible for the evolution of TALE specificities

    Draft Genome Sequence of the Flagellated Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans Strain CFBP 4884

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    Article de revue (Article scientifique dans une revue à comité de lecture)International audienceWe report the draft genome sequence of the flagellated strain CFBP 4884 of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans, which was isolatedin an outbreak of common bacterial blight of beans along with non-flagellated strains. Comparative genomics will allowone to decipher the genomic diversity of strains cohabiting in epidemics.</p

    CRISPR elements provide a new framework for the genealogy of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri

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    Background: Xanthomonads are an important clade of Gram-negative bacteria infecting a plethora of economically important host plants, including citrus. Knowledge about the pathogen's diversity and population structure are prerequisite for epidemiological surveillance and efficient disease management. Rapidly evolving genetic loci, such as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), are of special interest to develop new molecular typing tools. Results: We analyzed CRISPR loci of 56 Xanthomonas citri pv. citri strains of world-wide origin, a regulated pathogen causing Asiatic citrus canker in several regions of the world. With one exception, 23 unique sequences built up the repertoire of spacers, suggesting that this set of strains originated from a common ancestor that already harbored these 23 spacers. One isolate originating from Pakistan contained a string of 14 additional, probably more recently acquired spacers indicating that this genetic lineage has or had until recently the capacity to acquire new spacers. Comparison of CRISPR arrays with previously obtained molecular typing data, such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), variable-number of tandem-repeats (VNTR) and genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), demonstrated that these methods reveal similar evolutionary trajectories. Notably, genome analyses allowed to generate a model for CRISPR array evolution in X. citri pv. citri, which provides a new framework for the genealogy of the citrus canker pathogen. Conclusions: CRISPR-based typing will further improve the accuracy of the genetic identification of X. citri pv. citri outbreak strains in molecular epidemiology analyses, especially when used concomitantly with another genotyping method

    Adhesion Mechanisms of Plant-Pathogenic Xanthomonadaceae

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    The family Xanthomonadaceae is a wide-spread family of bacteria belonging to the gamma subdivision of the Gram-negative proteobacteria, including the two plant-pathogenic genera Xanthomonas and Xylella, and the related genus Stenotrophomonas. Adhesion is a widely conserved virulence mechanism among Gram-negative bacteria, no matter whether they are human, animal or plant pathogens, since attachment to the host tissue is one of the key early steps of the bacterial infection process. Bacterial attachment to surfaces is mediated by surface structures that are anchored in the bacterial outer membrane and cover a broad group of fimbrial and non-fimbrial structures, commonly known as adhesins. In this chapter, we discuss recent findings on candidate adhesins of plant-pathogenic Xanthomonadaceae, including polysaccharidic (lipopolysaccharides, exopolysaccharides) and proteineous structures (chaperone/usher pili, type IV pili, autotransporters, two-partner-secreted and other outer membrane adhesins), their involvement in the formation of biofilms and their mode of regulation via quorum sensing. We then compare the arsenals of adhesins among different Xanthomonas strains and evaluate their mode of selection. Finally, we summarize the sparse knowledge on specific adhesin receptors in plants and the possible role of RGD motifs in binding to integrin-like plant molecules

    Genomics and transcriptomics of Xanthomonas campestris species challenge the concept of core type III effectome

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    The bacterial species Xanthomonas campestris infects a wide range of Brassicaceae. Specific pathovars of this species cause black rot (pv. campestris), bacterial blight of stock (pv. incanae) or bacterial leaf spot (pv. raphani). In this study, we extended the genomic coverage of the species by sequencing and annotating the genomes of strains from pathovar incanae (CFBP 1606R and CFBP 2527R), pathovar raphani (CFBP 5828R) and a pathovar formerly named barbareae (CFBP 5825R). While comparative analyses identified a large core ORFeome at the species level, the core type III effectome was limited to only three putative type III effectors (XopP, XopF1 and XopAL1). In Xanthomonas, these effector proteins are injected inside the plant cells by the type III secretion system and contribute collectively to virulence. A deep and strand-specific RNA sequencing strategy was adopted in order to experimentally refine genome annotation for strain CFBP 5828R. This approach also allowed the experimental definition of novel ORFs and non-coding RNA transcripts. Using a constitutively active allele of hrpG, a master regulator of the type III secretion system, a HrpG-dependent regulon of 141 genes co-regulated with the type III secretion system was identified. Importantly, all these genes but seven are positively regulated by HrpG and 56 of those encode components of the Hrp type III secretion system and putative effector proteins. This dataset is an important resource to mine for novel type III effector proteins as well as for bacterial genes which could contribute to pathogenicity of X. campestris

    The Borrelia afzelii outer membrane protein BAPKO_0422 binds human Factor-H and is predicted to form a membrane-spanning beta-barrel

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    The deep evolutionary history of the Spirochetes places their branch point early in the evolution of the diderms, before the divergence of the present day Proteobacteria. As a Spirochete, the morphology of the Borrelia cell envelope shares characteristics of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A thin layer of peptidoglycan, tightly associated with the cytoplasmic membrane is surrounded by a more labile outer membrane (OM). This OM is rich in lipoproteins but with few known integral membrane proteins. The OmpA domain is an eight-stranded membrane-spanning β-barrel, highly conserved among the Proteobacteria but so far unknown in the Spirochetes. In the present work we describe the identification of four novel OmpA-like β-barrels from Borrelia afzelii, the most common cause of erythema migrans rash in Europe. Structural characterisation of one these proteins (BAPKO_0422) by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and circular dichroism indicate a compact globular structure rich in β-strand consistent with a monomeric β-barrel. Ab initio molecular envelopes calculated from the scattering profile are consistent with homology models and demonstrate that BAPKO_0422 adopts a peanut shape with dimensions 25 x 45 Å. Deviations from the standard C-terminal signature sequence are apparent; in particular the C-terminal Phe residue commonly found in Proteobacterial OM proteins is replaced by Ile/Leu or Asn. BAPKO_0422 is demonstrated to bind human factor-H and therefore may contribute to immune evasion by inhibition of the complement response. Encoded by chromosomal genes, these proteins are highly conserved between Borrelia subspecies and may be of diagnostic or therapeutic value

    Draft Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii Strain CFBP 6369

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    We report here the draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii strain CFBP 6369, the causal agent of bacterial blight of onion. The draft genome has a size of 5,425,942 bp and a G+C content of 64.4%

    The porin and the permeating antibiotic: A selective diffusion barrier in gram-negative bacteria

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    Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for a large proportion of antibiotic resistant bacterial diseases. These bacteria have a complex cell envelope that comprises an outer membrane and an inner membrane that delimit the periplasm. The outer membrane contains various protein channels, called porins, which are involved in the influx of various compounds, including several classes of antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through porins is an increasing problem worldwide that contributes, together with efflux systems, to the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. An exciting challenge is to decipher the genetic and molecular basis of membrane impermeability as a bacterial resistance mechanism. This Review outlines the bacterial response towards antibiotic stress on altered membrane permeability and discusses recent advances in molecular approaches that are improving our knowledge of the physico-chemical parameters that govern the translocation of antibiotics through porin channel
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