7,017 research outputs found

    The Legacy of John Sung

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    John Sung (Song Shangjie) was the premier Chinese evangelist of the twentieth century. He traveled further, spoke more often, and led more Chinese people to faith than any other person. His revivalism was riveting, often doubling people over in laughter before buckling their knees with grief. His acclaim as a preacher was rivaled only by his renown as a healer. Wherever he went, he offered Christ’s deliverance from both sin and sickness. He himself, however, was never healed of a chronic illness and spent the last four years of his short life bedridden and learning the quiet ministry of prayer

    Sacred webs: the social lives and networks of Minnan Protestants, 1840s-1920s

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    In Sacred Webs, historian Chris White demonstrates how Chinese Protestants in Minnan, or the southern half of Fujian Province, fractured social ties and constructed and utilized new networks through churches, which served as nodes linking individuals into larger Protestant communities. Through analyzing missionary archives, local church reports, and available Chinese records, Sacred Webs depicts Christianity as a Chinese religion and Minnan Protestants as laying claim to both a Christian faith and a Chinese cultural heritage.Accepted manuscrip

    The mosses of Easter Island

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    The bryophyte flora of Easter Island has been poorly known primarily because few botanists have collected there. In order to increase the knowledge of the flora the two authors collected bryophytes from 12 localities on the island from April 28-May 3, 2000. The small island, which is south of the Tropic of Capricorn, is of volcanic origin and the volcanic soil as well as the destruction of most of the native flora have undoubtedly contributed to the paucity of bryophytes. The present study revealed that the bryophyte flora consists of only a few species, including one unidentifiable member of the Anthocerotaceae, 11 hepatics and 30 mosses. Eighteen mosses are new to the island. Three mosses, Chenia leptophylla (Müll. Hal.) R. H. Zander, Dicranella hawaiica (Müll. Hal.) Broth. and Tortella humilis (Hedw.) Jennings, are new for Chile, while three, Fissidens pascuanus Broth. in Skottsb., Ptychomitrium subcylindricum Thér. and Trematodon pascuanus Thér., are presently known to be endemic to Easter Island. Two of the three endemics, Fissidens pascuanus and Ptychomitrium subcylindricum, were rediscovered on the island. Fissidens pascuanus was found with sporophytes for the first time and a revised description of the species is provided

    Quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares: re-evaluating their nature in the context of power-law flare Fourier spectra

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    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra, also referred to as 'red' noise processes, are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPP is needed. Here we adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/LYRA, Fermi/GBM, Nobeyama Radioheliograph and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required in order to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum, rather than a direct signature of oscillating components or structures. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for the existence of an explicit oscillation with P ~ 14-16 s is found in the 17 GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analysed events in the literature may be similarly described in terms of power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without the need to invoke a narrowband, oscillatory component. As a result the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, 1 table. Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa

    Effects of moderate abundance changes on the atmospheric structure and colours of Mira variables (Research Note)

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    Aims. We study the effects of moderate deviations from solar abundances upon the atmospheric structure and colours of typical Mira variables. Methods. We present two model series of dynamical opacity-sampling models of Mira variables which have (1) 1 solar metallicity 3 and (2) "mild" S-type C/O abundance ratio ([C/O]=0.9) with typical Zr enhancement (solar +1.0). These series are compared to a previously studied solar-abundance series which has similar fundamental parameters (mass, luminosity, period, radius) that are close to those of o Cet. Results. Both series show noticeable effects of abundance upon stratifications and infrared colours but cycle-to-cycle differences mask these effects at most pulsation phases, with the exception of a narrow-water-filter colour near minimum phase.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, accepted for A&

    The Volatility Trend of Protosolar and Terrestrial Elemental Abundances

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    We present new estimates of protosolar elemental abundances based on an improved combination of solar photospheric abundances and CI chondritic abundances. These new estimates indicate CI chondrites and solar abundances are consistent for 60 elements. We compare our new protosolar abundances with our recent estimates of bulk Earth composition (normalized to aluminium), thereby quantifying the devolatilization in going from the solar nebula to the formation of the Earth. The quantification yields a linear trend log(f)=αlog(TC)+β\log(f) = \alpha\log(T_C) + \beta, where ff is the Earth-to-Sun abundance ratio and TCT_C is the 50%\% condensation temperature of elements. The best fit coefficients are: α=3.676±0.142\alpha = 3.676\pm 0.142 and β=11.556±0.436\beta = -11.556\pm 0.436. The quantification of these parameters constrains models of devolatilization processes. For example, the coefficients α\alpha and β\beta determine a critical devolatilization temperature for the Earth TD(E)=1391±15T_{\mathrm{D}}(\mathrm{E}) = 1391 \pm 15 K. The terrestrial abundances of elements with TC<TD(E)T_{C} < T_{\mathrm{D}}(\mathrm{E}) are depleted compared with solar abundances, whereas the terrestrial abundances of elements with TC>TD(E)T_{C} > T_{\mathrm{D}}(\mathrm{E}) are indistinguishable from solar abundances. The terrestrial abundance of Hg (TCT_C = 252 K) appears anomalously high under the assumption that solar and CI chondrite Hg abundances are identical. To resolve this anomaly, we propose that CI chondrites have been depleted in Hg relative to the Sun by a factor of 13±713\pm7. We use the best-fit volatility trend to derive the fractional distribution of carbon and oxygen between volatile and refractory components (fvolf_\mathrm{vol}, freff_\mathrm{ref}). We find (0.91±0.080.91\pm 0.08, 0.09±0.080.09 \pm 0.08) for carbon and (0.80±0.040.80 \pm 0.04, 0.20±0.040.20 \pm 0.04) for oxygen.Comment: Accepted for publication in Icarus. 28 pages, 12 figures, 5 tables. Compared to v1, the results and conclusion are the same, while discussion of results and implications is expanded considerabl