150 research outputs found


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     Alburnus mossulensis has been exposed to lead and cadmium for (96)h in order to determination lethal concentration 50 (LC50) value. A total of 140 fish used in this experiment divided into two groups each group contain 70 fishes .The first group exposure to pbcl2 while the second group exposure to cdcl2. Method of Finney Probit Analysis used to analysis data. LC50  value for PbCl2 and CdCl2 was (57.8 and 29.6) mg/l respectively. Then used about 200  fishes divided into 4 groups, the first group exposure to 1/2LC50  of PbCl2 ,the second group exposure to 1/2LC50 CdCl2 while the third groups contained (1/2LC50 PbCl2+1/2LC50 of CdCl2) as so as control group for peroids (1,4,7 and 14) days to determination level of antioxidants Glutathione (GSH) and the level of lipid peroxidation (Malondialdehyde MDA) . The testes were carried out as three replications, lead ,cadmium and their mixture induced  oxidative stress . The results of this study  explained significant decrease of the level Glutathione and significant increase (Tukey test, P˂0.05)  of the level of Malondialdehye compared with control in all treatments .  It is possible to conclude that lead and Cadmium have cytotoxic effects, Fish mortality rates increase with increasing concentrations used and increasing exposure periods

    P Metabolism in the Bean-Rhizobium tropici Symbiosis

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    The Potential Role of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) in COVID-19: Navigating the Uncharted

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    Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) led to infected pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute kidney injury (AKI). The entry-point receptor for COVID-19 is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) at lung, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a receptor for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). There is 80% similarity between MERS-CoV and COVID-19. This study was planned to review the potential link between the incidence and severity of COVID-19 regarding the modulation of DPP-4 and ACE2 by DPP-4 and renin angiotensin system (RAS). In COVID-19, SARS-CoV2 binds ACE2 which is highly expressed by the epithelial cells of the blood vessel, intestine, and lung. However, pulmonary ACE2 seems to be a protective defense pathway during ARDS. DPP-4 is not concerned with the entry of COVID-19 but mediates the inflammatory reactions and cytokine storm that induced ARDS and AKI by COVID-19. The interaction between DPP4i and RAS inhibitors seem to augment the expression of AT2 receptor and ACE2 which are under extensive researches to find the pathophysiological pathway of COVID-19 infection. This beneficial interaction between DPP4i and RAS shed light for possible attenuation of COVID-19-induced ARDS and AKI mainly in critically ill patients with systemic hypertension

    Temperature and Density Effects on the Nucleon Mass Splitting

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    The finite temperature and finite density dependence of the neutron-proton mass difference is analysed in a purely hadronic framework where the ρω\rho-\omega mixing is crucial for this isospin symmetry breakdown. The problem is handled within Thermo Field Dynamics. The present results, consistent with partial chiral and charge symmetry restoration, improve the experimental data fit for the energy difference between mirror nuclei.Comment: 17 pages, revtex fil

    Multi-level evidence of an allelic hierarchy of USH2A variants in hearing, auditory processing and speech/language outcomes.

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    Language development builds upon a complex network of interacting subservient systems. It therefore follows that variations in, and subclinical disruptions of, these systems may have secondary effects on emergent language. In this paper, we consider the relationship between genetic variants, hearing, auditory processing and language development. We employ whole genome sequencing in a discovery family to target association and gene x environment interaction analyses in two large population cohorts; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and UK10K. These investigations indicate that USH2A variants are associated with altered low-frequency sound perception which, in turn, increases the risk of developmental language disorder. We further show that Ush2a heterozygote mice have low-level hearing impairments, persistent higher-order acoustic processing deficits and altered vocalizations. These findings provide new insights into the complexity of genetic mechanisms serving language development and disorders and the relationships between developmental auditory and neural systems

    Diclofenac Prolongs Repolarization in Ventricular Muscle with Impaired Repolarization Reserve

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    Background: The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. Methods: Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. Results: Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 mM). The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl 2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg) did not prolong while dofetilide (25 mg/kg) significantly lengthened the QT c interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QT c . Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP) while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%). In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 mM) decreased the amplitude of rapid (I Kr ) and slow (I Ks ) delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (I Ca ) was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (I to ) and inward rectifier (I K1 ) potassium currents were not influenced. Conclusions: Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve

    Serum amyloid A primes microglia for ATP-dependent interleukin-1\u3b2 release

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    Acute-phase response is a systemic reaction to environmental/inflammatory insults and involves production of acute-phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA). Interleukin-1\u3b2 (IL-1\u3b2), a master regulator of neuroinflammation produced by activated inflammatory cells of the myeloid lineage, in particular microglia, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic diseases of the peripheral nervous system and CNS. IL-1\u3b2 release is promoted by ATP acting at the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in cells primed with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands

    A Differential Network Approach to Exploring Differences between Biological States: An Application to Prediabetes

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    Background: Variations in the pattern of molecular associations are observed during disease development. The comprehensive analysis of molecular association patterns and their changes in relation to different physiological conditions can yield insight into the biological basis of disease-specific phenotype variation. Methodology: Here, we introduce a formal statistical method for the differential analysis of molecular associations via network representation. We illustrate our approach with extensive data on lipoprotein subclasses measured by NMR spectroscopy in 4,406 individuals with normal fasting glucose, and 531 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (prediabetes). We estimate the pair-wise association between measures using shrinkage estimates of partial correlations and build the differential network based on this measure of association. We explore the topological properties of the inferred network to gain insight into important metabolic differences between individuals with normal fasting glucose and prediabetes. Conclusions/Significance: Differential networks provide new insights characterizing differences in biological states. Based on conventional statistical methods, few differences in concentration levels of lipoprotein subclasses were found between individuals with normal fasting glucose and individuals with prediabetes. By performing the differential analysis of networks, several characteristic changes in lipoprotein metabolism known to be related to diabetic dyslipidemias were identified. The results demonstrate the applicability of the new approach to identify key molecular changes inaccessible to standard approaches

    Agronomic Management of Indigenous Mycorrhizas

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    Many of the advantages conferred to plants by arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) are associated to the ability of AM plants to explore a greater volume of soil through the extraradical mycelium. Sieverding (1991) estimates that for each centimetre of colonized root there is an increase of 15 cm3 on the volume of soil explored, this value can increase to 200 cm3 depending on the circumstances. Due to the enhancement of the volume of soil explored and the ability of the extraradical mycelium to absorb and translocate nutrients to the plant, one of the most obvious and important advantages resulting from mycorrhization is the uptake of nutrients. Among of which the ones that have immobilized forms in soil, such as P, assume particular significance. Besides this, many other benefits are recognized for AM plants (Gupta et al, 2000): water stress alleviation (Augé, 2004; Cho et al, 2006), protection from root pathogens (Graham, 2001), tolerance to toxic heavy metals and phytoremediation (Audet and Charest, 2006; Göhre and Paszkowski, 2006), tolerance to adverse conditions such as very high or low temperature, high salinity (Sannazzaro et al, 2006), high or low pH (Yano and Takaki, 2005) or better performance during transplantation shock (Subhan et al, 1998). The extraradical hyphae also stabilize soil aggregates by both enmeshing soil particles (Miller e Jastrow, 1992) and producing a glycoprotein, golmalin, which may act as a glue-like substance to adhere soil particles together (Wright and Upadhyaya, 1998). Despite the ubiquous distribution of mycorrhizal fungi (Smith and Read, 2000) and only a relative specificity between host plants and fungal isolates (McGonigle and Fitter, 1990), the obligate nature of the symbiosis implies the establishment of a plant propagation system, either under greenhouse conditions or in vitro laboratory propagation. These techniques result in high inoculum production costs, which still remains a serious problem since they are not competitive with production costs of phosphorus fertilizer. Even if farmers understand the significance of sustainable agricultural systems, the reduction of phosphorus inputs by using AM fungal inocula alone cannot be justified except, perhaps, in the case of high value crops (Saioto and Marumoto, 2002). Nurseries, high income horticulture farmers and no-agricultural application such as rehabilitation of degraded or devegetated landscapes are examples of areas where the use of commercial inoculum is current. Another serious problem is quality of commercial available products concerning guarantee of phatogene free content, storage conditions, most effective application methods and what types to use. Besides the information provided by suppliers about its inoculum can be deceiving, as from the usually referred total counts, only a fraction may be effective for a particular plant or in specific soil conditions. Gianinazzi and Vosátka (2004) assume that progress should be made towards registration procedures that stimulate the development of the mycorrhizal industry. Some on-farm inoculum production and application methods have been studied, allowing farmers to produce locally adapted isolates and generate a taxonomically diverse inoculum (Mohandas et al, 2004; Douds et al, 2005). However the inocula produced this way are not readily processed for mechanical application to the fields, being an obstacle to the utilization in large scale agriculture, especially row crops, moreover it would represent an additional mechanical operation with the corresponding economic and soil compaction costs. It is well recognized that inoculation of AM fungi has a potential significance in not only sustainable crop production, but also environmental conservation. However, the status quo of inoculation is far from practical technology that can be widely used in the field. Together a further basic understanding of the biology and diversity of AM fungi is needed (Abbott at al, 1995; Saito and Marumoto, 2002). Advances in ecology during the past decade have led to a much more detailed understanding of the potential negative consequences of species introductions and the potential for negative ecological consequences of invasions by mycorrhizal fungi is poorly understood. Schwartz et al, (2006) recommend that a careful assessment documenting the need for inoculation, and the likelihood of success, should be conducted prior to inoculation because inoculations are not universally beneficial. Agricultural practices such as crop rotation, tillage, weed control and fertilizer apllication all produce changes in the chemical, physical and biological soil variables and affect the ecological niches available for occupancy by the soil biota, influencing in different ways the symbiosis performance and consequently the inoculum development, shaping changes and upset balance of native populations. The molecular biology tools developed in the latest years have been very important for our perception of these changes, ensuing awareness of management choice implications in AM development. In this context, for extensive farming systems and regarding environmental and economic costs, the identification of agronomic management practices that allow controlled manipulation of the fungal community and capitalization of AM mutualistic effect making use of local inoculum, seem to be a wise option for mycorrhiza promotion and development of sustainable crop production

    Euclid preparation: XVII. Cosmic Dawn Survey: Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the Euclid deep fields and calibration fields

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    We present a new infrared survey covering the three Euclid deep fields and four other Euclid calibration fields using Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). We combined these new observations with all relevant IRAC archival data of these fields in order to produce the deepest possible mosaics of these regions. In total, these observations represent nearly 11 % of the total Spitzer Space Telescope mission time. The resulting mosaics cover a total of approximately 71.5 deg^{2} in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands, and approximately 21.8 deg^{2} in the 5.8 and 8 μm bands. They reach at least 24 AB magnitude (measured to 5σ, in a 2″​​.5 aperture) in the 3.6 μm band and up to ∼5 mag deeper in the deepest regions. The astrometry is tied to the Gaia astrometric reference system, and the typical astrometric uncertainty for sources with 16 "< "[3.6]< 19 is ≲ 0″​​.15. The photometric calibration is in excellent agreement with previous WISE measurements. We extracted source number counts from the 3.6 μm band mosaics, and they are in excellent agreement with previous measurements. Given that the Spitzer Space Telescope has now been decommissioned, these mosaics are likely to be the definitive reduction of these IRAC data. This survey therefore represents an essential first step in assembling multi-wavelength data on the Euclid deep fields, which are set to become some of the premier fields for extragalactic astronomy in the 2020s