1,012 research outputs found

    Frog: The Fast & Realistic OpenGL Event Displayer

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    FROG [1] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable for any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (<3 MB<3~\textrm{MB}) and fast (browsing time ∼20\sim20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OpenGL[2] and GLUT [3] libraries. Moreover, \textsc{Frog} does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration

    Search for supersymmetry in events with opposite-sign dileptons and missing transverse energy using an artificial neural network

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    In this paper, a search for supersymmetry (SUSY) is presented in events with two opposite-sign isolated leptons in the final state, accompanied by hadronic jets and missing transverse energy. An artificial neural network is employed to discriminate possible SUSY signals from a standard model background. The analysis uses a data sample collected with the CMS detector during the 2011 LHC run, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98  fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Compared to other CMS analyses, this one uses relaxed criteria on missing transverse energy (E̸T>40  GeV) and total hadronic transverse energy (HT>120  GeV), thus probing different regions of parameter space. Agreement is found between standard model expectation and observations, yielding limits in the context of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model and on a set of simplified model

    Search for narrow resonances using the dijet mass spectrum in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV

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    Results are presented of a search for the production of new particles decaying to pairs of partons (quarks, antiquarks, or gluons), in the dijet mass spectrum in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.0 inverse femtobarns, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2012. No significant evidence for narrow resonance production is observed. Upper limits are set at the 95% confidence level on the production cross section of hypothetical new particles decaying to quark-quark, quark-gluon, or gluon-gluon final states. These limits are then translated into lower limits on the masses of new resonances in specific scenarios of physics beyond the standard model. The limits reach up to 4.8 TeV, depending on the model, and extend previous exclusions from similar searches performed at lower collision energies. For the first time mass limits are set for the Randall-Sundrum graviton model in the dijet channel

    Determination of the top-quark pole mass and strong coupling constant from the ttbar production cross section in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The inclusive cross section for top-quark pair production measured by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is compared to the QCD prediction at next-to-next-to-leading order with various parton distribution functions to determine the top-quark pole mass, mtpolem_t^{pole}, or the strong coupling constant, αS\alpha_S. With the parton distribution function set NNPDF2.3, a pole mass of 176.7−2.8+3.0^{+3.0}_{-2.8} GeV is obtained when constraining αS\alpha_S at the scale of the Z boson mass, mZm_Z, to the current world average. Alternatively, by constraining mtpolem_t^{pole} to the latest average from direct mass measurements, a value of αS(mZ)\alpha_S(m_Z) = 0.1151−0.0027+0.0028^{+0.0028}_{-0.0027} is extracted. This is the first determination of αS\alpha_S using events from top-quark production

    Transverse momentum spectra of b jets in pPb collisions at sqrt(s[NN]) = 5.02 TeV

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    We present a measurement of b jet transverse momentum (pt) spectra in proton-lead (pPb) collisions using a dataset corresponding to about 35 inverse nanobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets from b quark fragmentation are found by exploiting the long lifetime of hadrons containing a b quark through tagging methods using distributions of the secondary vertex mass and displacement. Extracted cross sections for b jets are scaled by the effective number of nucleon-nucleon collisions and are compared to a reference obtained from PYTHIA simulations of pp collisions. The PYTHIA-based estimate of the nuclear modification factor is found to be 1.22 +/- 0.15 (stat + syst pPb) +/- 0.27 (syst PYTHIA) averaged over all jets with pt between 55 and 400 GeV/c and with abs(eta[lab]) < 2. We also compare this result to predictions from models using perturbative calculations in quantum chromodynamics

    Searches for electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons decaying to leptons and W, Z, and Higgs bosons in pp collisions at 8 TeV

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    Searches for the direct electroweak production of supersymmetric charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons in a variety of signatures with leptons and W, Z, and Higgs bosons are presented. Results are based on a sample of proton-proton collision data collected at center-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 8 TeV with the CMS detector in 2012, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 inverse femtobarns. The observed event rates are in agreement with expectations from the standard model. These results probe charginos and neutralinos with masses up to 720 GeV, and sleptons up to 260 GeV, depending on the model details

    Probing color coherence effects in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    A study of color coherence effects in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data used in the analysis were collected in 2010 with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. Events are selected that contain at least three jets and where the two jets with the largest transverse momentum exhibit a back-to-back topology. The measured angular correlation between the second- and third-leading jet is shown to be sensitive to color coherence effects, and is compared to the predictions of Monte Carlo models with various implementations of color coherence. None of the models describe the data satisfactorily

    Search for the associated production of the Higgs boson with a top-quark pair

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    A search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair (t tbar H) is presented, using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 5.1 inverse femtobarns and 19.7 inverse femtobarns collected in pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV respectively. The search is based on the following signatures of the Higgs boson decay: H to hadrons, H to photons, and H to leptons. The results are characterized by an observed t tbar H signal strength relative to the standard model cross section, mu = sigma/sigma[SM], under the assumption that the Higgs boson decays as expected in the standard model. The best fit value is mu = 2.8 +/- 1.0 for a Higgs boson mass of 125.6 GeV

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pt) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MADGRAPH + PYTHIA and SHERPA, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BLACKHAT + SHERPA. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pt distributions of the leading jets at high pt values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values
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