17 research outputs found

    MA

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    thesisMuch of the existing research on the economic assimilation of post-1965 immigrants relative to the native born has revolved around earnings. The earnings differential is a helpful measure of inequality as it indicates the amount of resources an individual or group has for socio-economic well-being, but it still limits our complete understanding of immigrants' economic incorporation and more specifically, their labor market experiences. Added to this, assimilation is not a uniform process. I evaluate one of the key assertions of segmented assimilation theory by examining national origin patterns of labor market integration, for post-1965 Latin American and Caribbean immigrants' changes in employment status over the period 1980 to 2000

    Doctor of Philosophy

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    dissertationLatin American and Caribbean countries are aging rapidly. The pace of this process along with the institutional and economic contexts varies across countries, but there are common regional norms. Across the region, the family unit continues to bear significant responsibility for the well-being of older adults and within the family, there are gender differentiated expectations for the provision and receipt of support. The stability of the family and the gender roles therein, with regard to support for older adults, takes on more significance in countries where mobility among younger adults is commonplace and fertility continues to decline. Using data from the 2000 Survey of Health Well-Being and Aging of Older Adults in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE), this study provides a comparative assessment of intergenerational residential proximity and transfers of financial and functional support in the region among 9,259 older adults. It assesses the extent to which upward flows of support are conditioned by the prevailing economic and institutional contexts of aging as well as the gender systems of household organization in seven cities across the region. The findings reveal that patterns of residential proximity and support transfers in these cities generally differ according to the respective stage of demographic transition and the strength of social welfare systems in countries. Older adults in Montevideo are more likely to live further away from their children and to receive less support compared to those in Mexico City. Whereas older adults in Montevideo, Uruguay and Bridgetown, Barbados are less likely to receive financial support from children at further distances, older adults in Havana are not. Regarding gender, in all cities, except Buenos Aires, older women are more likely than men to receive support. Regional gender norms of sons being primarily responsible for economic support were not consistent across the cities. Altogether, findings reveal geographic proximity, gender systems, and macro level socioeconomic contexts shape intergenerational support

    The ageing Caribbean: 20 years of the Madrid Plan of Action

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    This report assess the situation of older persons and reviews the actions taken in Caribbean countries and territories, particularly over the past five years, to implement the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing and related regional agreements. It contributes to the global and regional reviews of the Plan of Action, 20 years on from its adoption in 2002, and includes recommendations to further address population ageing and the rights of older persons in the Caribbean.Abstract .-- Introduction .-- I. Ageing, economic security and public policy .-- II. Ageing, health and care .-- III. Enabling and supportive environments .-- IV. Conclusions and key recommendations

    Wealth inequalities in physical and cognitive impairments across Japan and Europe: the role of health expenditure and infrastructure

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    Although prior research has provided insights into the association between country-level factors and health inequalities, key research gaps remain. First, most previous studies examine subjective rather than objective health measures. Second, the wealth dimension in health inequalities is understudied. Third, a handful of studies explicitly focus on older adults. To bridge these research gaps, this study measures wealth-related inequalities in physical and cognitive impairments and examines the extent to which welfare states moderate wealth inequalities in physical and cognitive impairments among older people across Japan and Europe. We utilized harmonized data on non-institutionalized individuals aged 50–75 from the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement (JSTAR) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) (N = 31,969 for physical impairments and 31,348 for cognitive impairments). Our multilevel linear regression analyses examined whether national public health spending and healthcare access resources explained cross-country differences in wealth inequalities in physical and cognitive impairments. We applied a concentration index to quantify the degree of wealth inequalities in impairments. The findings indicate that inequalities in both impairment outcomes favored wealthier individuals in all countries, but the magnitude of inequality varied by country. Furthermore, a higher share of public health spending, lower out-of-pocket expenditure, and higher investment in healthcare resources were associated with lower wealth inequalities, especially for physical impairments. Our findings suggest that different health interventions and policies may be needed to mitigate specific impairment inequalities

    Coresidence increases the risk of testing positive for COVID-19 among older Brazilians

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    Background: Brazil is among the countries hit hardest by COVID-19, and older adults are among the vulnerable groups. Intergenerational coresidence and interdependence among family members, both prevalent in Brazil, likely increase social and physical contact and thus potential infection. Methods: Using nationally representative data from the COVID-19 module of the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios), collected between July and November of 2020, we examined the association between living arrangements and exposure to and testing for COVID-19 among 63,816 Brazilians aged 60 years and older. We examine whether living arrangements influence self-reported COVID-19 symptoms as an indicator of subjective health assessment, testing as an indicator of health care service use, and a positive COVID-19 test result as an objective indicator of exposure to the disease. Results: Living arrangements shape older adults’ vulnerabilities to COVID-19 exposure and testing. Specifically, those living alone were more likely to report having symptoms and having had a test for COVID-19. However, older adults in multigenerational and skipped generation households were more likely than solo-dwellers to test positive for COVID- 19. Those with symptoms were more likely to test, regardless of their living arrangement. Among older adults without symptoms, those living alone had a higher probability of testing than those living in multigenerational or skippedgeneration households. Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest that coresidence with younger family members puts older adults’ health at risk in the context of COVID-19. As younger Brazilians are increasingly vulnerable to COVID-19 and experiencing severe outcomes, policy makers need to be more attentive to the health needs of households that comprise older and younger cohorts, which are also more prevalent in poor and marginalized segments of the population

    Social health protection for the elderly in the English-speaking Caribbean

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    Includes bibliographyThe present paper seeks to contribute to the growing discussion on social protection through an assessment of the status of social health protection systems for the elderly within the English-speaking Caribbean, and a review of the systems in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. It was prepared as a background document for the Expert Group Meeting on Social Health Protection for Vulnerable Populations which was held in Port of Spain on 31 October 2011. Against the backdrop of demographic changes underway in the Caribbean, the paper analyses the schemes and mechanisms that have been instituted by Member States towards ensuring decent living standards for the elderly by ensuring adequate provision of health care and long-term care. The paper highlights the emerging challenges and discusses the need for reforms and policy interventions, in the context of the long-term impacts on the health and social security systems of a rapidly-ageing population and the parallel increase in the prevalence of non-communicable and chronic diseases

    Health inequalities in older age: The role of socioeconomic resources and social networks in context

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    Healthy ageing and a high wellbeing in old age not only crucial for individuals but also for societies as a whole, especially in times of demographic ageing. In this chapter, we assess the social gradient in old age health from a sociological perspective. We describe the state of knowledge concerning health inequalities in the second half of life within a theoretical and empirical perspective, and focus on methodological challenges in comparative research on ageing. We first present an overview of general theoretical assumptions about the links between social and health inequality as well as different mechanisms and pathways linking socioeconomic resources to older age health. Next we give special attention to the role of the role of social networks and family relationships for (differences in the) wellbeing of older men and women and different socioeconomic groups. We close with critical remarks about methodological limitations and open questions for future research

    Loneliness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic—are unpartnered and childless older adults at higher risk?

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    COVID-19 mitigation efforts had the potential to exacerbate loneliness among older adults, particularly for the unpartnered or childless, yet specific studies on loneliness among these groups during the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) collected before (October 2019–March 2020) and during the pandemic (June–August 2020), we examine two loneliness outcomes: (1) “have you felt lonely recently?” (both datasets) and (2) “have you felt lonelier than before the pandemic?” (2020), and examine differences by partnership and parenthood status. Before COVID-19, those who lacked one tie but had the other (unpartnered parents or partnered childless) were at highest loneliness risk. During COVID-19, unpartnered and childless—especially unpartnered—remain at higher risk for loneliness, entering loneliness, and not “exiting” loneliness. We discuss these findings in light of family norms and needs in pandemic and non-pandemic times and provide recommendations for future research

    Living Arrangements and Intergenerational Support in Puerto Rico: Are Fathers Disadvantaged?

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    Objectives: To examine how intergenerational support varies by parents’ living arrangements and whether there are gender differences in received support in Puerto Rico. Methods: Data come from the 2006–2007 Puerto Rican Elderly and Health Conditions Project, a representative longitudinal study of adults aged 60 and older in Puerto Rico (n = 2,288). We examined the association between parents’ living arrangements (alone, with spouse/partner only, with children) and their receipt of functional (help with errands/housework/ transport) and health (help when sick) support from children, and whether parents’ gender moderates the association. Results: Intergenerational coresidence was associated with higher odds of receiving functional and health support than living alone. Women were more likely than men to receive both forms of support. Parents’ gender significantly moderated the association between living arrangements and receiving health support—men living with their partners were less likely to receive health support from children than women in similar living arrangements. These associations persisted when analyses were restricted to those with disability. Discussion: Our findings suggest that parents’ receipt of support from children is conditioned upon their living arrangement and gender, even when their functional health is jeopardized. We discuss these results in relation to the heterogeneous influence of living arrangements for older adults’ support needs and provide suggestions for policy and directions for future research in rapidly aging Puerto Rico
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