4,605 research outputs found

    On the Response of an OST to a Point-like Heat Source

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    A new technique of superconducting cavity diagnostics has been introduced by D. Hartrill at Cornell University, Ithaca, USA. Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OST) detect the heat transferred from a cavity's quench point via "Second Sound" through the superfluid He bath, needed to cool the superconducting cavity. The observed response of an OST is a complex, but reproducible pattern of oscillations. A small helium evaporation cryostat was built which allows the investigation of the response of an OST in greater detail. The distance between a point-like electrical heater and the OST can be varied. The OST can be mounted either parallel or perpendicular to the plate, housing the heat source. If the artificial quench-point releases an amount of energy compatible to a real quench spot on a cavity's surface, the OST signal starts with a negative pulse, which is usually strong enough to allow automatic detection. Furthermore, the reflection of the Second Sound on the wall is observed. A reflection coefficient R = 0.39 +- 0.05 of the glass wall is measured. This excludes a strong influence of multiple reflections in the complex OST response. Fourier analyses show three main frequencies, found in all OST spectra. They can be interpreted as modes of an oscillating circular membrane.Comment: 10 pages, 16 figure

    Origin of Nepheline-normative High-K Ankaramites and the Evolution of Eastern Srednogorie Arc in SE Europe

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    Eastern Srednogorie is part of the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic belt in SE Europe, the main arc related to the Late Cretaceous subduction and closure of the Tethys Ocean between Africa and Europe. Extrusive and shallow intrusive magmatism in the Eastern Srednogorie is abundant and extremely diverse in composition, covering a wide range from ultramafic volcanic rocks to granites; this provides a unique opportunity to study processes of primitive melt formation and magma evolution in an arc environment. In contrast to other parts of the belt, relatively mafic lavas predominate here. Three magmatic regions are distinguished within Eastern Srednogorie from south to north: Strandzha, Yambol-Burgas and East Balkan. Systematic differences exist between these regions, notably the increased alkalinity of samples from the Yambol-Burgas region in the central part. All rocks display a clear subduction-like signature in their trace-element patterns, particularly the enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements relative to high field strength elements. A distinct primitive nepheline-normative ankaramite magma type is recognized among the mafic volcanic rocks from the Yambol-Burgas region and melt inclusions entrapped in olivine and clinopyroxene from a cumulitic rock. Lower crustal clinopyroxene and amphibole cumulates carried to the surface as xenoliths in a mafic dike represent a possible source for the ankaramite. Modeling of the melting process suggests that low degrees of batch melting of a clinopyroxene-rich, amphibole-bearing source similar to the cumulate xenoliths at 1 GPa, temperatures of 1240-1300°C, oxidized conditions and a water content of 0·2 wt % reproduce accurately most of the observed major- and trace-element characteristics of the studied ankaramites. The elevated Rb, K2O, Th, Ba content and higher Pb isotope ratios of the predicted liquids compared with the ankaramites are explained by mixing of the ankaramite magma with lherzolite partial melts derived from the subduction-modified mantle wedge. Underplating of such mantle-derived magmas at the crust-mantle boundary in an extensional environment as a response to slab roll-back provides also the necessary heat to melt lower crustal cumulates. Fractional crystallization of mainly clinopyroxene plus olivine and Fe-Ti oxides in a deep (equivalent to 8 kbar pressure) magma chamber produced most of the observed range of shoshonitic basalts and basaltic andesites in Eastern Srednogorie. The more evolved intermediate varieties were probably formed by mixing and crystallization at lower temperatures in lower pressure magma chambers. Whole-rock Sr and Pb isotope compositions indicate variable degrees of admixing of basement rocks to generate the intermediate to acid Late Cretaceous magmas, but assimilation was minimal for magmas with less than 53 wt % SiO2. The proposed model for the evolution of the magmatism in Eastern Srednogorie involves initial formation of the calc-alkaline and high-K arc magmatism in the Strandzha and East Balkan regions, followed by roll-back induced intra-arc rifting and the formation of high-K, shoshonitic and ultra-high-K magmatism, including primitive ankaramites in the Yambol-Burgas regio

    Adakite-like and Normal Arc Magmas: Distinct Fractionation Paths in the East Serbian Segment of the Balkan-Carpathian Arc

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    New age and whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic data are used to assess petrogenetic and regional geodynamic processes associated with Late Cretaceous subvolcanic intrusions within the sparsely studied Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC) and Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (RKZ) of eastern Serbia. The TMC and RKZ form part of the Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie (ABTS) magmatic belt, a Cu-Au mineralized calc-alkaline magmatic arc related to closure of the Tethys Ocean that extends through Romania, Serbia, and Bulgaria in SE Europe. Zircon ages based on U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry supplemented by existing isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry data respectively range from 89 to 79 Ma and from 76 to 71 Ma for the TMC and RKZ. This age pattern corresponds to cross-arc younging away from the European continent. Adakite-like trace element signatures (Y ≤18 ppm) are linked with samples that extend across the arc. These overlap in space and time with samples that conform to a normal arc differentiation trend. We performed energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) modeling of Sr-La-Nd-Yb concentrations and Sr and Nd isotopic data. Results suggest that the two distinct fractionation trends may be explained in terms of a common mantle-derived parental magma but distinct fractionation and assimilation paths in the lower and upper crust. Petrogenesis of the adakite-like magmas is consistent with extensive high-pressure amphibole fractionation in the lower crust followed by ascent and plagioclase-dominant fractionation and assimilation in the upper crust. In contrast, normal arc signatures appear to have evolved exclusively via an upper-crustal differentiation process. Overall, our interpretation supports mantle wedge melting related to weak extension during progressive rollback of a subducting sla

    Application of precise 142Nd/144Nd analysis of small samples to inclusions in diamonds (Finsch, South Africa) and Hadean Zircons (Jack Hills, Western Australia)

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    146Sm-142Nd and 147Sm-143Nd systematics were investigated in garnet inclusions in diamonds from Finsch (S. Africa) and Hadean zircons from Jack Hills (W. Australia) to assess the potential of these systems as recorders of early Earth evolution. The stud

    Split-grain 40Ar/39Ar dating : integrating temporal and geochemical data from crystal cargoes

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    NERC is acknowledged for continued funding of AIF at SUERC, East Kilbride. This work was supported by an ETH research grant (ETH-05 13-2) and funds from Swiss National Science Foundation research grants (SNSF 200021-146268 and SNSF 200021-155923/1) and US National Science Grant 1425491.Large sanidine crystals from the Mesa Falls Tuff (MFT), Yellowstone volcanic field, have been split and individually dated via high-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology with the undated portions further analysed for major elements, trace elements, Pb and Sr isotopes in the sanidine and trace elements in the melt inclusions. This allows the geochemical and geochronological identity of an individual sanidine to be combined. Our MFT sanidines return a preferred eruption age of 1.3011 ± 0.0015/0.0016 Ma (2-sigma, n = 56, MSWD 0.8, analytical/full external) with a significant component of subtly older (up to ~ 2 Ma) crystals. Combined with recent results (Rivera et al., 2016, Journal of Petrology 57, 9, 1677–1704) our data define a global mean sanidine 40Ar/39Ar age for the MFT of 1.3022 ± 0.0006/0.0008 Ma (2 sigma, analytical/full external) relative to Alder Creek sanidine at 1.1891 Ma and total λ40Ar 5.5305e-10, which gives RACsMFT: 1.09542 ± 0.00050. The ability to couple geochemistry and geochronology from a single grain allows us, for the first time, to evaluate the origin of the subtly older sanidines present in the same pumices as juvenile sanidines. Melt inclusions from all Mesa Falls sanidines represent extremely fractionated melts with low Sr contents (max. 12 ppm, n = 39), and rare earth element patterns which require that they be formed from an A-type magma rather than the preceding subduction-related Eocene volcanism as previously suggested. 87Sr/86Sr from juvenile and subtly older sanidines shows the same range of 0.7073 to 0.7096, illustrating the susceptibility of such low-Sr melts to slight degrees of assimilation. Pb isotopic compositions are more restricted and identical between the juvenile and subtly older sanidines in the Mesa Falls Tuff (207Pb/206Pb 0.900–0.903, 208Pb/206Pb 2.217–2.226, n = 83) and these compositions rule out the underlying Huckleberry Ridge Tuff member B as a potential source for the subtly older sanidine. LA-ICPMS 206Pb/238U dating of Mesa Falls zircons supports no role for the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff. Rather, these subtly older sanidines are interpreted as containing excess mantle-derived Ar. The ability to couple the geochemical and geochronological records within individual sanidine crystals that we demonstrate here has potential to provide new insights for a variety of petrological studies such as diffusional modelling.PostprintPeer reviewe

    HV/HR-CMOS sensors for the ATLAS upgrade—concepts and test chip results

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    In order to extend its discovery potential, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have a major upgrade (Phase II Upgrade) scheduled for 2022. The LHC after the upgrade, called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will operate at a nominal leveled instantaneous luminosity of 5× 1034 cm−2 s−1, more than twice the expected Phase I . The new Inner Tracker needs to cope with this extremely high luminosity. Therefore it requires higher granularity, reduced material budget and increased radiation hardness of all components. A new pixel detector based on High Voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) technology targeting the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector is under study. The main advantages of the HVCMOS technology are its potential for low material budget, use of possible cheaper interconnection technologies, reduced pixel size and lower cost with respect to traditional hybrid pixel detector. Several first prototypes were produced and characterized within ATLAS upgrade R&D effort, to explore the performance and radiation hardness of this technology. In this paper, an overview of the HVCMOS sensor concepts is given. Laboratory tests and irradiation tests of two technologies, HVCMOS AMS and HVCMOS GF, are also given

    Radiation-hard active pixel sensors for HL-LHC detector upgrades based on HV-CMOS technology

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    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation at room temperature. A traditional readout chip is still needed to receive and organize the data from the active sensor and to handle high-level functionality such as trigger management. HV-CMOS has been designed to be compatible with both pixel and strip readout. In this paper an overview of HV2FEI4, a HV-CMOS prototype in 180 nm AMS technology, will be given. Preliminary results after neutron and X-ray irradiation are shown

    State determination in continuous measurement

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    The possibility of determining the state of a quantum system after a continuous measurement of position is discussed in the framework of quantum trajectory theory. Initial lack of knowledge of the system and external noises are accounted for by considering the evolution of conditioned density matrices under a stochastic master equation. It is shown that after a finite time the state of the system is a pure state and can be inferred from the measurement record alone. The relation to emerging possibilities for the continuous experimental observation of single quanta, as for example in cavity quantum electrodynamics, is discussed.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figures, Revte
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