2 research outputs found

    Supplementary Material for: Verbascoside Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in Mice via Its Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect

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    <b><i>Background:</i></b> Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the interplay between multiple genetic and environmental factors. The pathogenesis of AD remains incompletely understood. Treatment with topical steroids for chronic AD symptoms has severe side effects and so a new treatment is required.<b><i></i></b> Verbascoside is a hydrophilic phenylethanoid glycoside with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Verbascoside was evaluated in AD-like lesions induced by the repetitive and alternative application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in BALB/c mice. Overall symptomatic score and serological and molecular changes of the skin lesions were investigated. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Verbascoside relieved the overall AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior and skin lesion severity. At whole-body level, verbascoside significantly reduced DNCB-induced IgE and Th2 cytokines in the peripheral blood. At the skin lesion site, verbascoside also inhibited DNCB-induced production of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-╬▒, IL-6, and IL-4 mRNA. In a human monocyte THP-1 model, verbascoside could suppress DNCB-induced upregulation of CD86 and CD54 at the cell surface, the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-╬▒ and IL-6, and the activation of NF╬║B signaling in a dose-dependent manner. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our results demonstrate that verbascoside could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD

    Supplementary Material for: Expression Changes of Long Noncoding RNA in the Process of Endothelial Cell Activation

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    <i>Background:</i> Endothelial cells have been shown to be in response to a variety of local and systemic stimuli, and are able to transition between quiescent and activated states. Endothelial cell activation is critical for the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the expression changes of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are still unknown in the process of endothelial cell activation. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate expression changes of lncRNA before and after endothelial cell activation. <i>Materials and Methods:</i> In an experimental model of peripheral venous congestion, endothelial cells were activated and analyzed with Affymetrix HG-U133 plus2.0 microarray. We analyzed these microarray data and reannotated the microarray probes for lncRNA. <i>Results:</i> According to the definition of absolute fold change>2 and p value <0.05, 27 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified and only 1 lncRNA transcript, ENST00000509256 was down-regualted. Co-expression network of lncRNA and mRNA were constructed to predict function of the dysregulated lncRNA. Gene set enrichment analyses suggested that these ENST00000509256 was associated with many important functions, such as cell-cell signaling and regulation of cell differentiation. <i>Conclusion:</i> Many lncRNAs are dysregulated upon endothelial cell activation and further experiments are needed to identify the potential biological functions of these lncRNAs