44 research outputs found

    Detection of QTLs for seedling characteristics in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under hydroponic culture condition

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    Published VersionBackground: Seedling characteristics play significant roles in the growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including stable stand establishment, water and nutrients uptake, biotic resistance and abiotic stresses, and can influence yield and quality. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling characteristics in barley are largely unknown and little research has been done. In the present work, 21 seedling-related characteristics are assessed in a barley double haploid (DH) population, grown under hydroponic conditions. Of them, leaf age (LAG), shoot height (SH), maximum root length (MRL), main root number (MRN) and seedling fresh weight (SFW) were investigated at the 13th, 20th, 27th, and 34th day after germination. The objectives were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying these seedling characteristics using a high-density linkage map and to reveal the QTL expression pattern by comparing the QTLs among four different seedling growth stages.Results: A total of 70 QTLs were distributed over all chromosomes except 4H, and, individually, accounted for 5.01%–77. 78% of phenotypic variation. Out of the 70 detected QTLs, 23 showed a major effect on 14 seedling-related characteristics. Ten co-localized chromosomal regions on 2H (five regions), 3H (two regions) and 7H (three regions) involved 39 QTLs (55.71%), each simultaneously influenced more than one trait. Meanwhile, 9 co-localized genomic regions involving 22 QTLs for five seedling characteristics (LAG, SH, MRL, MRN and SFW) at the 13th, 20th, 27th and 34th day-old seedling were common for two or more growth stages of seedling. QTL in the vicinity of Vrs1 locus on chromosome 2H with the favorable alleles from Huadamai 6 was found to have the largest main effects on multiple seedling-related traits.Conclusions: Six QTL cluster regions associated with 16 seedling-related characteristics were observed on chromosome 2H, 3H and 7H. The majority of the 29 regions identified for five seedling characteristics were selectively expressed at different developmental stages. The genetic effects of 9 consecutive expression regions displayed different developmental influences at different developmental stages. These findings enhanced our understanding of a genetic basis underlying seedling characteristics in barley. Some QTLs detected here could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in barley breedin

    Dissecting the Genetic Basis of Grain Size and Weight in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by QTL and Comparative Genetic Analyses

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    Grain size and weight are crucial components of barley yield and quality and are the target characteristics of domestication and modern breeding. Despite this, little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms of grain size and weight in barley. Here, we evaluated nine traits determining grain size and weight, including thousand grain weight (Tgw), grain length (Gl), grain width (Gw), grain length-width ratio (Lwr), grain area (Ga), grain perimeter (Gp), grain diameter (Gd), grain roundness (Gr), and factor form density (Ffd), in a double haploid (DH) population for three consecutive years. Using five mapping methods, we successfully identified 60 reliable QTLs and 27 hotspot regions that distributed on all chromosomes except 6H which controls the nine traits of grain size and weight. Moreover, we also identified 164 barley orthologs of 112 grain size/weight genes from rice, maize, wheat and 38 barley genes that affect grain yield. A total of 45 barley genes or orthologs were identified as potential candidate genes for barley grain size and weight, including 12, 20, 9, and 4 genes or orthologs for barley, rice, maize, and wheat, respectively. Importantly, 20 of them were located in the 14 QTL hotspot regions on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, and 7H, which controls barley grain size and weight. These results indicated that grain size/weight genes of other cereal species might have the same or similar functions in barley. Our findings provide new insights into the understanding of the genetic basis of grain size and weight in barley, and new information to facilitate high-yield breeding in barley. The function of these potential candidate genes identified in this study are worth exploring and studying in detail

    Dissecting the Genetic Basis of Grain Size and Weight in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by QTL and Comparative Genetic Analyses

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    Grain size and weight are crucial components of barley yield and quality and are the target characteristics of domestication and modern breeding. Despite this, little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms of grain size and weight in barley. Here, we evaluated nine traits determining grain size and weight, including thousand grain weight (Tgw), grain length (Gl), grain width (Gw), grain length-width ratio (Lwr), grain area (Ga), grain perimeter (Gp), grain diameter (Gd), grain roundness (Gr), and factor form density (Ffd), in a double haploid (DH) population for three consecutive years. Using five mapping methods, we successfully identified 60 reliable QTLs and 27 hotspot regions that distributed on all chromosomes except 6H which controls the nine traits of grain size and weight. Moreover, we also identified 164 barley orthologs of 112 grain size/weight genes from rice, maize, wheat and 38 barley genes that affect grain yield. A total of 45 barley genes or orthologs were identified as potential candidate genes for barley grain size and weight, including 12, 20, 9, and 4 genes or orthologs for barley, rice, maize, and wheat, respectively. Importantly, 20 of them were located in the 14 QTL hotspot regions on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, and 7H, which controls barley grain size and weight. These results indicated that grain size/weight genes of other cereal species might have the same or similar functions in barley. Our findings provide new insights into the understanding of the genetic basis of grain size and weight in barley, and new information to facilitate high-yield breeding in barley. The function of these potential candidate genes identified in this study are worth exploring and studying in detail

    Microcavity-like exciton-polaritons can be the primary photoexcitation in bare organic semiconductors.

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    Strong-coupling between excitons and confined photonic modes can lead to the formation of new quasi-particles termed exciton-polaritons which can display a range of interesting properties such as super-fluidity, ultrafast transport and Bose-Einstein condensation. Strong-coupling typically occurs when an excitonic material is confided in a dielectric or plasmonic microcavity. Here, we show polaritons can form at room temperature in a range of chemically diverse, organic semiconductor thin films, despite the absence of an external cavity. We find evidence of strong light-matter coupling via angle-dependent peak splittings in the reflectivity spectra of the materials and emission from collective polariton states. We additionally show exciton-polaritons are the primary photoexcitation in these organic materials by directly imaging their ultrafast (5‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ106‚ÄČm‚ÄČs-1), ultralong (~270‚ÄČnm) transport. These results open-up new fundamental physics and could enable a new generation of organic optoelectronic and light harvesting devices based on cavity-free exciton-polaritons.EPSRC (EP/R025517/1), EPSRC (EP/M025330/1), ERC Horizon 2020 (grant agreements No 670405 and No 758826), ERC (ERC-2014-STG H2020 639088), Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, Swedish Research Council (VR, 2014-06948), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation 3DEM-NATUR (no. 2012.0112), Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, CNRS (France), US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, CPIMS Program, Early Career Research Program (DE-SC0019188)

    A Low Phase Noise Frequency Synthesizer with a Fourth-Order RLC Loop Filter

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    The current work employs the HMC830 phase-locked loop chip to design a frequency synthesizer operating in the L-band. The frequency synthesizer can provide a local oscillation signal for the RF receiver front end. This article employs the phase-locked synthesis technique to describe the design scheme. Due to the advantages of the passive loop filters, such as simplicity, low cost, and low phase noise, a passive fourth-order RLC loop filter is proposed to improve the output signal quality and reduce phase noise. The performance of this loop filter is compared with the passive fourth-order RC loop filter. The effects of these two loop filters on phase noise, loop capture time, and spur suppression are analyzed. Subsequently, the design scheme, simulation analysis, and test results of the frequency synthesizer are presented under these two loop filters. The test results indicate that the passive fourth-order RLC loop filter outperforms the passive fourth-order RC loop filter; its output signal phase noise is higher than ‚ąí100 dBc/Hz@1 kHz, loop capture time is less than 100 us, and spur suppression is better than 60 dBc. This frequency synthesizer can provide high-performance local oscillation signals for wireless communication equipment such as transmitters and receivers. It meets the application requirements of many radio communication circuit structures and has good application prospects

    Identification of QTL underlying the leaf length and area of different leaves in barley

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    Abstract Leaf is the main organ of photosynthesis, which significantly impacts crop yield. A high-density linkage map containing 1894 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 68 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers was used to identify quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flag leaf length (FLL), second leaf length (SLL), third leaf length (TLL), fourth leaf length (FOLL), flag leaf area (FLA), second leaf area (SLA), third leaf area (TLA) and fourth leaf area (FOLA). In total, 57 QTLs underlying the top four leaf length and area traits were identified and mapped on chromosome 2H, 3H, 4H and 7H. Individual QTL accounted for 5.17% to 37.11% of the phenotypic variation in 2015 and 2016. A major stable QTL qFLL2-2 close to the marker 2HL_25536047 was identified on the long arm of chromosome 2H. The most important QTL clustered region at M_256210_824 - 2HL_23335246 on chromosome 2H was associated with FLL, SLL, FLA and SLA and explained high phenotypic variation. These findings provide genetic basis for improving the leaf morphology of barley. In addition, our results suggested that the top four leaves were significantly positively correlated with plant height and some yield-related traits
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