51,573 research outputs found

    Equations for the third secant variety of the Segre product of n projective spaces

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    We determine set theoretic defining equations for the third secant variety of the Segre product of nn projective spaces, and from the proof of the main statement we derive an upper bound for the degrees of these equations

    Jet-dominated quiescent state in black hole X-ray binaries: the cases of A0620--00 and XTE J1118+480

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    The radiative mechanism of the black hole X-ray transients (BHXTs) in their quiescent states (defined as the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity ≀1034 erg sβˆ’1\le 10^{34}{\rm \,erg\,s^{-1}}) remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the quasi-simultaneous quiescent state spectrum (including radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray) of two BHXTs, A0620--00 and XTE J1118+480. We find that, these two sources can be well described by a coupled accretion -- jet model. More specifically, most of the emission (radio up-to infrared, and the X-ray waveband) comes from the collimated relativistic jet. Emission from hot accretion flow is totally insignificant, and it can only be observed in mid-infrared (the synchrotron peak). Emission from the outer cold disc is only evident in UV band. These results are consistent with our previous investigation on the quiescent state of V404 Cyg, and confirm that the quiescent state is jet-dominated.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure, accepted for publication in Research in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Detecting crystal symmetry fractionalization from the ground state: Application to Z2\mathbb Z_2 spin liquids on the kagome lattice

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    In quantum spin liquid states, the fractionalized spinon excitations can carry fractional crystal symmetry quantum numbers, and this symmetry fractionalization distinguishes different topologically ordered spin liquid states. In this work we propose a simple way to detect signatures of such crystal symmetry fractionalizations from the crystal symmetry representations of the ground state wave function. We demonstrate our method on projected Z2\mathbb Z_2 spin liquid wave functions on the kagome lattice, and show that it can be used to classify generic wave functions. Particularly our method can be used to distinguish several proposed candidates of Z2\mathbb Z_2 spin liquid states on the kagome lattice.Comment: main text: 6 pages, 1 figure. supplemental material: 8 pages, 2 figures. Added a few references and the journal referenc

    Anomalous Crystal Symmetry Fractionalization on the Surface of Topological Crystalline Insulators

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    The surface of a three-dimensional topological electron system often hosts symmetry-protected gapless surface states. With the effect of electron interactions, these surface states can be gapped out without symmetry breaking by a surface topological order, in which the anyon excitations carry anomalous symmetry fractionalization that cannot be realized in a genuine two-dimensional system. We show that for a mirror-symmetry-protected topological crystalline insulator with mirror Chern number n=4n=4, its surface can be gapped out by an anomalous Z2\mathbb Z_2 topological order, where all anyons carry mirror-symmetry fractionalization M2=βˆ’1M^2=-1. The identification of such anomalous crystalline symmetry fractionalization implies that in a two-dimensional Z2\mathbb Z_2 spin liquid the vison excitation cannot carry M2=βˆ’1M^2=-1 if the spinon carries M2=βˆ’1M^2=-1 or a half-integer spin.Comment: 6+8 pages, 2 figures. v2: added a new section in the supplemental material, the journal reference and some other change
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