2,139 research outputs found

    An Experimental Exploration of the QCD Phase Diagram: The Search for the Critical Point and the Onset of De-confinement

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    The QCD phase diagram lies at the heart of what the RHIC Physics Program is all about. While RHIC has been operating very successfully at or close to its maximum energy for almost a decade, it has become clear that this collider can also be operated at lower energies down to 5 GeV without extensive upgrades. An exploration of the full region of beam energies available at the RHIC facility is imperative. The STAR detector, due to its large uniform acceptance and excellent particle identification capabilities, is uniquely positioned to carry out this program in depth and detail. The first exploratory beam energy scan (BES) run at RHIC took place in 2010 (Run 10), since several STAR upgrades, most importantly a full barrel Time of Flight detector, are now completed which add new capabilities important for the interesting physics at BES energies. In this document we discuss current proposed measurements, with estimations of the accuracy of the measurements given an assumed event count at each beam energy.Comment: 59 pages, 78 figure

    Longitudinal Spin Transfer to Λ\Lambda and Λˉ\bar{\Lambda} Hyperons in Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 200 GeV

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    The longitudinal spin transfer, DLLD_{LL}, from high energy polarized protons to Λ\Lambda and Λˉ\bar{\Lambda} hyperons has been measured for the first time in proton-proton collisions at s=200GeV\sqrt{s} = 200 \mathrm{GeV} with the STAR detector at RHIC. The measurements cover pseudorapidity, η\eta, in the range η<1.2|\eta| < 1.2 and transverse momenta, pTp_\mathrm{T}, up to 4GeV/c4 \mathrm{GeV}/c. The longitudinal spin transfer is found to be DLL=0.03±0.13(stat)±0.04(syst)D_{LL}= -0.03\pm 0.13(\mathrm{stat}) \pm 0.04(\mathrm{syst}) for inclusive Λ\Lambda and DLL=0.12±0.08(stat)±0.03(syst)D_{LL} = -0.12 \pm 0.08(\mathrm{stat}) \pm 0.03(\mathrm{syst}) for inclusive Λˉ\bar{\Lambda} hyperons with =0.5 = 0.5 and =3.7GeV/c = 3.7 \mathrm{GeV}/c. The dependence on η\eta and pTp_\mathrm{T} is presented.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Studies of di-jet survival and surface emission bias in Au+Au collisions via angular correlations with respect to back-to-back leading hadrons

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    We report first results from an analysis based on a new multi-hadron correlation technique, exploring jet-medium interactions and di-jet surface emission bias at RHIC. Pairs of back-to-back high transverse momentum hadrons are used for triggers to study associated hadron distributions. In contrast with two- and three-particle correlations with a single trigger with similar kinematic selections, the associated hadron distribution of both trigger sides reveals no modification in either relative pseudo-rapidity or relative azimuthal angle from d+Au to central Au+Au collisions. We determine associated hadron yields and spectra as well as production rates for such correlated back-to-back triggers to gain additional insights on medium properties.Comment: By the STAR Collaboration. 6 pages, 2 figure

    Inclusive pi^0, eta, and direct photon production at high transverse momentum in p+p and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

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    We report a measurement of high-p_T inclusive pi^0, eta, and direct photon production in p+p and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV at midrapidity (0 gamma gamma were detected in the Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The eta -> gamma gamma decay was also observed and constituted the first eta measurement by STAR. The first direct photon cross section measurement by STAR is also presented, the signal was extracted statistically by subtracting the pi^0, eta, and omega(782) decay background from the inclusive photon distribution observed in the calorimeter. The analysis is described in detail, and the results are found to be in good agreement with earlier measurements and with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.Comment: 28 pages, 30 figures, 6 tables, the updated version that was accepted by Phys. Rev.

    Measurements of Dihadron Correlations Relative to the Event Plane in Au+Au Collisions at sNN=200\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV

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    Dihadron azimuthal correlations containing a high transverse momentum (\pt) trigger particle are sensitive to the properties of the nuclear medium created at RHIC through the strong interactions occurring between the traversing parton and the medium, i.e. jet-quenching. Previous measurements revealed a strong modification to dihadron azimuthal correlations in Au+Au collisions with respect to \pp\ and \dAu\ collisions. The modification increases with the collision centrality, suggesting a path-length dependence to the jet-quenching effect. This paper reports STAR measurements of dihadron azimuthal correlations in mid-central (20-60\%) Au+Au collisions at \snn=200~GeV as a function of the trigger particle's azimuthal angle relative to the event plane, \phis=|\phit-\psiEP|. The azimuthal correlation is studied as a function of both the trigger and associated particle \pt. The subtractions of the combinatorial background and anisotropic flow, assuming Zero Yield At Minimum (\zyam), are described. The away-side correlation is strongly modified, and the modification varies with \phis, which is expected to be related to the path-length that the away-side parton traverses. The pseudo-rapidity (\deta) dependence of the near-side correlation, sensitive to long range \deta correlations (the ridge), is also investigated. The ridge and jet-like components of the near-side correlation are studied as a function of \phis. The ridge appears to drop with increasing \phis while the jet-like component remains approximately constant. ...Comment: 50 pages, 39 figures, 6 table

    Charged and strange hadron elliptic flow in Cu+Cu collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4 and 200 GeV

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    We present the results of an elliptic flow analysis of Cu+Cu collisions recorded with the STAR detector at 62.4 and 200GeV. Elliptic flow as a function of transverse momentum is reported for different collision centralities for charged hadrons and strangeness containing hadrons KS0K_{S}^{0}, Λ\Lambda, Ξ\Xi, ϕ\phi in the midrapidity region eta<1.0|eta|<1.0. Significant reduction in systematic uncertainty of the measurement due to non-flow effects has been achieved by correlating particles at midrapidity, η<1.0|\eta|<1.0, with those at forward rapidity, 2.5<η<4.02.5<|\eta|<4.0. We also present azimuthal correlations in p+p collisions at 200 GeV to help estimating non-flow effects. To study the system-size dependence of elliptic flow, we present a detailed comparison with previously published results from Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. We observe that v2v_{2}(pTp_{T}) of strange hadrons has similar scaling properties as were first observed in Au+Au collisions, i.e.: (i) at low transverse momenta, pT<2GeV/cp_T<2GeV/c, v2v_{2} scales with transverse kinetic energy, mTmm_{T}-m, and (ii) at intermediate pTp_T, 2<pT<4GeV/c2<p_T<4GeV/c, it scales with the number of constituent quarks, nqn_q. We have found that ideal hydrodynamic calculations fail to reproduce the centrality dependence of v2v_{2}(pTp_{T}) for KS0K_{S}^{0} and Λ\Lambda. Eccentricity scaled v2v_2 values, v2/ϵv_{2}/\epsilon, are larger in more central collisions, suggesting stronger collective flow develops in more central collisions. The comparison with Au+Au collisions which go further in density shows v2/ϵv_{2}/\epsilon depend on the system size, number of participants NpartN_{part}. This indicates that the ideal hydrodynamic limit is not reached in Cu+Cu collisions, presumably because the assumption of thermalization is not attained.Comment: 18 pages, 14 figure

    Identified high-pTp_{T} spectra in Cu+Cu collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV

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    We report new results on identified (anti)proton and charged pion spectra at large transverse momenta (3<pTp_{T}<10 GeV/c) from Cu+Cu collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV using the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This study explores the system size dependence of two novel features observed at RHIC with heavy ions: the hadron suppression at high-pTp_{T} and the anomalous baryon to meson enhancement at intermediate transverse momenta. Both phenomena could be attributed to the creation of a new form of QCD matter. The results presented here bridge the system size gap between the available pp and Au+Au data, and allow the detailed exploration for the on-set of the novel features. Comparative analysis of all available 200 GeV data indicates that the system size is a major factor determining both the magnitude of the hadron spectra suppression at large transverse momenta and the relative baryon to meson enhancement.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev. C, 9 pages, 5 figure

    Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus

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    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the universe microseconds after the Big Bang, and in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high energy accelerator of heavy nuclei is an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4Heˉ^4\bar{He}), also known as the anti-{\alpha} (αˉ\bar{\alpha}), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B=-4). It has not been observed previously, although the {\alpha} particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the 10% level. Antimatter nuclei with B < -1 have been observed only as rare products of interactions at particle accelerators, where the rate of antinucleus production in high-energy collisions decreases by about 1000 with each additional antinucleon. We present the observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus, the heaviest observed antinucleus. In total 18 4Heˉ^4\bar{He} counts were detected at the STAR experiment at RHIC in 109^9 recorded Au+Au collisions at center-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, which has implications beyond nuclear physics.Comment: 19 pages, 4 figures. Submitted to Nature. Under media embarg

    System size and energy dependence of near-side di-hadron correlations

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    Two-particle azimuthal (Δϕ\Delta\phi) and pseudorapidity (Δη\Delta\eta) correlations using a trigger particle with large transverse momentum (pTp_T) in dd+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{{NN}}} =\xspace 62.4 GeV and 200~GeV from the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented. The \ns correlation is separated into a jet-like component, narrow in both Δϕ\Delta\phi and Δη\Delta\eta, and the ridge, narrow in Δϕ\Delta\phi but broad in Δη\Delta\eta. Both components are studied as a function of collision centrality, and the jet-like correlation is studied as a function of the trigger and associated pTp_T. The behavior of the jet-like component is remarkably consistent for different collision systems, suggesting it is produced by fragmentation. The width of the jet-like correlation is found to increase with the system size. The ridge, previously observed in Au+Au collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{{NN}}} = 200 GeV, is also found in Cu+Cu collisions and in collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{{NN}}} =\xspace 62.4 GeV, but is found to be substantially smaller at sNN\sqrt{s_{{NN}}} =\xspace 62.4 GeV than at sNN\sqrt{s_{{NN}}} = 200 GeV for the same average number of participants (Npart \langle N_{\mathrm{part}}\rangle). Measurements of the ridge are compared to models.Comment: 17 pages, 14 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations and possible local strong parity violation in heavy ion collisions