1,057 research outputs found

    Operations and Performance of the CMS DT and RPC muon systems

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    The muon spectrometer of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with a redundant muon system based on Drift Tubes (DT) Chambers, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) for muon identification, precise momentum measurement and triggering. On 30th March 2010, LHC started proton proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. The operations and performance of the DT and RPC systems during the first three years of LHC activity with increasing instantaneous luminosity will be reported. The DT local trigger performance is described, showing how the challenging design goals have been met. Special attention will be given to the RPC working point calibration procedure and to the efficiency stability of the RPC system, confirming the excellent behavior and the fulfillment of the CMS requirements. Finally the radiation background levels in the DT and RPC systems have been measured. Extrapolations to the LHC design conditions are also discussed

    Simple and complex images: Operationalization and first calibration

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    The aim of this study is to operationalize the construction of the complexity related to images. In particular, we want to calibrate the judgments of complexity related to colourful images and black and white images who belong to different categories (animals, fruit, transports, technological tools and faces) and examine the parameters related to the different levels of their categorical complexity.The first part of this composition put forward a definition of the construction, a comparison between the various theories of the complexity of the images and an analysis of the various fields of application.In the second part, the purpose is to operationalize the construction, together with the method, the procedures used, and the sample that are described in detail.The article ends with a debate about the results and some thoughts about the importance to operationalize the construct of the complexity.The added value of this study is to provide, for the first time, a contribution to the operationalization of the construct of complexity. The complex and simple images can be used by the scientific community as a catalog that could be used in different fields of application (for example clinical/experimental, marketing/advertising, etc.)

    Seasonal response of benthic foraminifera to anthropogenic pressure in two stations of the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy): the marine protected area of Miramare versus the Servola water sewage outfall

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    A seasonal survey of living benthic foraminifera was performed in 2013 in the Gulf of Trieste (N Adriatic Sea) to compare two marine coastal sites with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. An assessment of ecological quality statuses showed that the station located near the end of an urban pipeline (Ser station), has worse ecological conditions than the site located in a protected marine area (Res station) all year around. Stressed conditions at Ser station were mainly related to high contents of total organic carbon (TOC) and Zn in the bioavailable fraction, which were a limiting factor for the studied foraminiferal communities. Ammonia tepida, Bolivina spp., and Bulimina spp., which characterised this station, were the most tolerant taxa of the studied assemblage. Conversely, Elphidium spp., H. depressula, N. iridea, Quiqueloculina spp., R. nana and Textularia spp., could be considered less tolerant species as they benefitted from the less stressful conditions recorded at Res station, despite slightly higher concentrations of some potentially toxic elements (PTEs), especially Pb, being recorded in this station in comparison to Ser station. Furthermore, foraminiferal assemblages were found to be quite resilient over an annual cycle, being able to recover from a seasonal unbalanced state to a mature one. The beginning of spring and latest summer would be the best period to assess the ecological quality status to avoid any under- or overestimation of the health of the environment

    Cardio-Metabolic Indices and Metabolic Syndrome as Predictors of Clinical Severity of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

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    BackgroundObesity, mainly visceral obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are major risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Data analyzing the association of obesity and MetS with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) are lacking. Fatty liver index (FLI) is a non-invasive tool for identifying individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has been suggested as a gender-specific indicator of adipose dysfunction. Both indexes have been proposed as early predictors of MetS. This study aimed to investigate the association of FLI VAI as early predictors of MetS with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs).MethodsA cross-sectional, case-control, observational study was carried out at the ENETS Centers of Excellence Multidisciplinary Group for Neuroendocrine Tumors, University "Federico II". VAI and FLI were calculated.ResultsWe enrolled 109 patients with histologically confirmed G1/G2 GEP-NET (53 M; 57.06 +/- 15.96 years), as well as 109 healthy subjects, age, sex- and body mass index-matched. Forty-four GEP-NET patients were G2, of which 21 were with progressive disease, and 27 patients had metastases. GEP-NET patients had a higher value of VAI (p < 0.001) and FLI (p = 0.049) and higher MetS presence (p < 0.001) compared with controls. VAI and FLI values and MetS presence were higher in G2 than in G1 patients (p < 0.001), in patients with progressive disease, and in metastatic vs non-metastatic patients (p < 0.001). In addition, higher values of VAI and FLI and higher MetS presence were significantly correlated with the worst clinical severity of NENs. The cut-off values for the FLI and MetS to predict high grading of GEP-NETs and the presence of metastasis were also provided.ConclusionsThis is the first study investigating an association between VAI and FLI as early predictors of MetS and GEP-NET. Our findings report that the worsening of clinicopathological characteristics in GEP-NET is associated with higher presence of MetS, NAFLD, evaluated by FLI, and visceral adiposity dysfunction, evaluated by VAI. Addressing the clinical evaluation of MetS presence, NAFLD, and visceral adiposity dysfunction might be of crucial relevance to establish targeted preventive and treatment interventions of NEN-related metabolic comorbidities

    Recent results and developments on double-gap RPCs for CMS

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    Abstract A 3 mm wide-gap Resistive Plate Chamber, as proposed for CMS, has been tested in the H2 Cern beam line. Results on efficiency, rate capability, time resolution and cluster size are reported
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