3,516 research outputs found

    Properties of HERA Events from DIS on Pions in the Proton

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    Recently the concept of the pion cloud in the nucleon turned out to be successful in understanding the Gottfried sum rule violation observed by the New Muon Collaboration and the Drell--Yan asymmetry measured in NA51 at CERN. We propose a further possibility to test this concept at HERA through the analysis of the structure of deep inelastic scattering (DIS) events induced by pion--exchange. Momentum and energy distributions of outgoing nucleons as well as rapidity and multiplicity distributions are investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Most observables cannot distinguish this process from ordinary DIS, but in the energy distribution of final neutrons we find a significantly different prediction from the pion cloud model. Forward neutron calorimeters will be essential to test the concept of pions in the nucleon.Comment: LaTeX file and gziped tar file with eps figures, 14 page


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    Este trabalho se propõe a analisar a fortuna crítica da obra da poeta Elizabeth Bishop nos Estados Unidos e no Brasil, detendo-se nas transformações que marcaram os processos de leitura de sua obra poética nas últimas décadas, do formalismo textual da Nova Crítica ao historicismo que reinstala o contexto da obra, culminando no "biografismo" que transforma a poeta em personagem

    LITERATURA "MENOR": Linguagem e Identidade Cultural num Conto Afro-Americano

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    Este artigo aborda a constituição da literatura afro-americana como literatura "menor", no sentido discutido por Deleuze e Guattari, isto é, aquela que subverte a língua padrão e a literatura "oficial" de um país. Tal literatura desempenha importante papel na formação da identidade cultural do negro norte-americano, não só por tratar de temas relativos ao seu mundo, mas, principalmente, por incorporar, na linguagem literária, afala do gueto e os ritmos da música negra, constituindo assim uma tradição literária própria. Tonia-se, para análise, o conto "Just don't never give up on love", de Sonia Sanchez, por tratar-se de um belo exemplo de prosa poética, na qual a linguagem colore e suaviza temas como a brutalidade e o sofrimento de vidas femininas. O conto é uma afirmação da identidade e uma celebração da força da mulher negra

    17β-Estradiol Is Required for the Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Repeated Binge-Pattern Alcohol Exposure on the HPA Axis during Adolescence

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    Alcohol consumption during adolescence has long-term sexually dimorphic effects on anxiety behavior and mood disorders. We have previously shown that repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure increased the expression of two critical central regulators of stress and anxiety, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), in adolescent male rats. By contrast, there was no effect of alcohol on these same genes in adolescent females. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that 17β-estradiol (E2), the predominant sex steroid hormone in females, prevents alcohol-induced changes in CRH and AVP gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. To test this hypothesis, postnatal day (PND) 26 females were ovariectomized and given E2 replacement or cholesterol as a control. Next, they were given an alcohol exposure paradigm of 1) saline alone, 2) acute (single dose) or 3) a repeated binge-pattern. Our results showed that acute and repeated binge-pattern alcohol treatment increased plasma ACTH and CORT levels in both E2- and Ch-treated groups, however habituation to repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure was evident only in E2-treated animals. Further, repeated binge-pattern alcohol exposure significantly decreased CRH and AVP mRNA in Ch-, but not E2-treated animals, which was consistent with our previous observations in gonad intact females. We further tested the effects of E2 and alcohol treatment on the activity of the wild type CRH promoter in a PVN-derived neuronal cell line. Alcohol increased CRH promoter activity in these cells and concomitant treatment with E2 completely abolished the effect. Together our data suggest that E2 regulates the reactivity of the HPA axis to a repeated stressor through modulation of the habituation response and further serves to maintain normal steady state mRNA levels of CRH and AVP in the PVN in response to a repeated alcohol stressor

    A fully continuous and modular monoclonal antibody purification process with capture via precipitation

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    Alcohol Dysregulates Corticotropin-Releasing-Hormone (CRH) Promoter Activity by Interfering with the Negative Glucocorticoid Response Element (nGRE)

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    EtOH exposure in male rats increases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), a brain region responsible for coordinating stress and anxiety responses. In this study we identified the molecular mechanisms involved in mediating these effects by examining the direct effects of EtOH on CRH promoter activity in a neuronal cell line derived from the PVN (IVB). In addition, we investigated the potential interactions of EtOH and glucocorticoids on the CRH promoter by concomitantly treating cells with EtOH and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU486, and by sequentially deleting GR binding sites within glucocorticoid response element (GRE) on the CRH promoter. Cells were transiently transfected with a firefly luciferase reporter construct containing 2.5 kb of the rat wild type (WT) or mutated CRH promoter. Our results showed that EtOH treatment induced a biphasic response in CRH promoter activity. EtOH exposure for 0.5 h significantly decreased promoter activity compared to vehicle treated controls, whereas promoter activity was significantly increased after 2.0 h of EtOH exposure. Treatment with RU486, or deletion of the GR binding sites 1 and 2 within the GRE, abolished the EtOH-induced increase in the promoter activity, however did not affect EtOH-induced decrease in CRH promoter activity at an earlier time point. Overall, our data suggest that alcohol exposure directly regulates CRH promoter activity by interfering with the normal feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoids mediated by GR signaling at the GRE site of the CRH promoter

    Testing the Meson Cloud Model in Inclusive Meson Production

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    We have applied the Meson Cloud Model to calculate inclusive momentum spectra of pions and kaons produced in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. For the first time these data are used to constrain the cloud cut-off parameters. We show that it is possible to obtain a reasonable description of data, especially the large xFx_F (xF≥0.2x_F \geq 0.2) part of the spectrum and at the same time describe (partially) the E866 data on dˉ−uˉ\bar d - \bar u and dˉ/uˉ\bar d / \bar u. We also discuss the relative strength of the πN\pi N and πΔ\pi \Delta vertices. We find out that the corresponding cut-off parameters should be both soft and should not differ by more than 200 MeV from each other. An additional source (other than the meson cloud) of sea antiquark asymmetry, seems to be necessary to completely explain the data. A first extension of the MCM to proton nucleus collisions is discussed.Comment: 14 pages, Latex, 6 ps figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Measurement of the Luminosity in the ZEUS Experiment at HERA II

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    The luminosity in the ZEUS detector was measured using photons from electron bremsstrahlung. In 2001 the HERA collider was upgraded for operation at higher luminosity. At the same time the luminosity-measuring system of the ZEUS experiment was modified to tackle the expected higher photon rate and synchrotron radiation. The existing lead-scintillator calorimeter was equipped with radiation hard scintillator tiles and shielded against synchrotron radiation. In addition, a magnetic spectrometer was installed to measure the luminosity independently using photons converted in the beam-pipe exit window. The redundancy provided a reliable and robust luminosity determination with a systematic uncertainty of 1.7%. The experimental setup, the techniques used for luminosity determination and the estimate of the systematic uncertainty are reported.Comment: 25 pages, 11 figure
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