325 research outputs found

    Study of Bulk Damage of High Dose Gamma Irradiated p-type Silicon Diodes with Various Resistivities

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    The bulk damage of p-type silicon detectors caused by high doses of gamma irradiation has been studied. The study was carried out on three types of n+^{+}-in-p silicon diodes with comparable geometries but different initial resistivities. This allowed to determine how different initial parameters of studied samples influence radiation-induced changes in the measured characteristics. The diodes were irradiated by a Cobalt-60 gamma source to total ionizing doses ranging from 0.50 up to 8.28 MGy, and annealed for 80 minutes at 60 {\deg}C. The Geant4 toolkit for simulation of the passage of particles through matter was used to simulate the deposited energy homogeneity, to verify the equal distribution of total deposited energies through all the layers of irradiated samples, and to calculate the secondary electron spectra in the irradiation box. The main goal of the study was to characterize the gamma-radiation induced displacement damage by measuring current-voltage characteristics (IV), and the evolution of the full depletion voltage with the total ionizing dose, by measuring capacitance-voltage characteristics (CV). It has been observed that the bulk leakage current increases linearly with total ionizing dose, and the damage coefficient depends on the initial resistivity of the silicon diode. The effective doping concentration and therefore full depletion voltage significantly decreases with increasing total ionizing dose, before starting to increase again at a specific dose. We assume that this decrease is caused by the effect of acceptor removal. Another noteworthy observation of this study is that the IV and CV measurements of the gamma irradiated diodes do not reveal any annealing effect

    Status Update and Interim Results from the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial-2 (ACST-2)

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    Objectives: ACST-2 is currently the largest trial ever conducted to compare carotid artery stenting (CAS) with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with severe asymptomatic carotid stenosis requiring revascularization. Methods: Patients are entered into ACST-2 when revascularization is felt to be clearly indicated, when CEA and CAS are both possible, but where there is substantial uncertainty as to which is most appropriate. Trial surgeons and interventionalists are expected to use their usual techniques and CE-approved devices. We report baseline characteristics and blinded combined interim results for 30-day mortality and major morbidity for 986 patients in the ongoing trial up to September 2012. Results: A total of 986 patients (687 men, 299 women), mean age 68.7 years (SD 卤 8.1) were randomized equally to CEA or CAS. Most (96%) had ipsilateral stenosis of 70-99% (median 80%) with contralateral stenoses of 50-99% in 30% and contralateral occlusion in 8%. Patients were on appropriate medical treatment. For 691 patients undergoing intervention with at least 1-month follow-up and Rankin scoring at 6 months for any stroke, the overall serious cardiovascular event rate of periprocedural (within 30 days) disabling stroke, fatal myocardial infarction, and death at 30 days was 1.0%. Conclusions: Early ACST-2 results suggest contemporary carotid intervention for asymptomatic stenosis has a low risk of serious morbidity and mortality, on par with other recent trials. The trial continues to recruit, to monitor periprocedural events and all types of stroke, aiming to randomize up to 5,000 patients to determine any differential outcomes between interventions. Clinical trial: ISRCTN21144362. 漏 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Second asymptomatic carotid surgery trial (ACST-2): a randomised comparison of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy

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    Background: Among asymptomatic patients with severe carotid artery stenosis but no recent stroke or transient cerebral ischaemia, either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can restore patency and reduce long-term stroke risks. However, from recent national registry data, each option causes about 1% procedural risk of disabling stroke or death. Comparison of their long-term protective effects requires large-scale randomised evidence. Methods: ACST-2 is an international multicentre randomised trial of CAS versus CEA among asymptomatic patients with severe stenosis thought to require intervention, interpreted with all other relevant trials. Patients were eligible if they had severe unilateral or bilateral carotid artery stenosis and both doctor and patient agreed that a carotid procedure should be undertaken, but they were substantially uncertain which one to choose. Patients were randomly allocated to CAS or CEA and followed up at 1 month and then annually, for a mean 5 years. Procedural events were those within 30 days of the intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses are provided. Analyses including procedural hazards use tabular methods. Analyses and meta-analyses of non-procedural strokes use Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN21144362. Findings: Between Jan 15, 2008, and Dec 31, 2020, 3625 patients in 130 centres were randomly allocated, 1811 to CAS and 1814 to CEA, with good compliance, good medical therapy and a mean 5 years of follow-up. Overall, 1% had disabling stroke or death procedurally (15 allocated to CAS and 18 to CEA) and 2% had non-disabling procedural stroke (48 allocated to CAS and 29 to CEA). Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year non-procedural stroke were 2路5% in each group for fatal or disabling stroke, and 5路3% with CAS versus 4路5% with CEA for any stroke (rate ratio [RR] 1路16, 95% CI 0路86鈥1路57; p=0路33). Combining RRs for any non-procedural stroke in all CAS versus CEA trials, the RR was similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (overall RR 1路11, 95% CI 0路91鈥1路32; p=0路21). Interpretation: Serious complications are similarly uncommon after competent CAS and CEA, and the long-term effects of these two carotid artery procedures on fatal or disabling stroke are comparable. Funding: UK Medical Research Council and Health Technology Assessment Programme

    Measurement of exclusive pion pair production in proton鈥損roton collisions at 鈭歴=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector