165 research outputs found

    Analiza vzorcev pelet slovenskih proizvajalcev 2014

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    Analiza vzorcev pelet slovenskih proizvajalcev 2014

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    Situation of the Slovenian Sawmill Sector in 2013/2014

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    The Slovenian sawmill industry has undergone numerous changes since the beginning of economic crisis in 2008, mainly due to the decline in production in the furniture and construction industry. Consequently the sawmill sector struggled for survival instead of investing in new technologies and implementing innovations. In the framework of the international IDWOOD project (taking place between 2012 and 2014), aiming to promote and foster innovation and competitiveness of SMEs in the wood sector in the SEE area, an analysis of the Slovenian sawmill sector was carried out in order to identifying major gaps. Concurrently similar analysis was also carried out in the neighbour regions of the SEE area (i.e. Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia). In the current article we would like to present the findings of the performed study. The results were compared with the situation of the sawmill industry in other SEE regions and advanced European countries

    Analiza kakovostne strukture okroglega lesa listavcev

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    Prispevek predstavlja rezultate analize kakovostne strukture okroglega lesa treh najpomembnej┼íih drevesnih vrst listavcev v Sloveniji, navadne bukve (Fagus sylvatica L.), gorskega javorja (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) ter hrasta doba (Quercus robur L.). Na razli─Źnih se─Źi┼í─Źih po Sloveniji smo drevesa izbrali in izmerili pred posekom, nato pa po poseku izmerili dimenzije posameznih izdelanih gozdno-lesnih sortimentov ter lokacijo in velikost morebitnih nepravilnosti na ravni posameznega sortimenta. Vsak sortiment je bil razvr┼í─Źen v enega izmed kakovostnih razredov A, B, C, D (hlodovina) ali drugo oblovino (nehlodovina). Nato smo za vsako posamezno drevo izra─Źunali dele┼ż posameznega kakovostnega razreda v prostornini celotnega drevesa. V povpre─Źju lahko pri upo┼ítevanju zahtev trenutno veljavnega Pravilnika pri se─Źnji listavcev s prsnim premerom nad 30 cm pri─Źakujemo med 40ÔÇô50 % hlodovine

    Glavne faze razvoja drva pitomog kestena (Castanea sativa) u sredi┼ínjoj Italiji ÔÇô usporedba sezone 2008 i 2009

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    We present wood formation in chestnut (Castanea sativa) during the growing seasons 2008 and 2009, compare its dynamics in the two years and discuss possible effects on wood quality. To this purpose, microcores containing wood, cambium and phloem were collected at weekly intervals from 10 chestnut trees growing at the Cimini mountains near Viterbo, Central Italy. In 2008, the onset of wood formation started before the first sampling on 17 April 2008. Onset of lignification of the first formed vessels was observed around 23 April (day of the year DOY 113.8 ┬▒ 5.3) and the first latewood vessels were observed around 5 June 2008 (DOY 156.5 ┬▒ 7.7). Latewood formation continued until 29 September 2008 (DOY 273.9 ┬▒ 10.5) when the terminal cells of the newly formed xylem ring were fully lignified. In 2009, the main phases of wood formation generally occurred earlier than in 2008. The expansion of earlywood vessels was observed around 10 April (DOY 99.7 ┬▒ 6.1), the onset of lignification around 22 April (DOY 111.9 ┬▒ 7.4) and the first latewood vessels around 28 May 2009 (DOY 147.9 ┬▒ 4.7). Lignification of the last formed cells was completed by 26 September 2009 (DOY 273.9 ┬▒ 10.5). The average duration of tree-ring formation was 161 days in 2008 and 169 days in 2009, the average ring widths were 3296 ┬▒ 1514 ╬╝m in 2008 and 3166 ┬▒ 1073 ╬╝m in 2009, and latewood percentages comprised 76% and 74% of the 2008 and 2009 tree-rings, respectively. The small differences in timing of wood formation phases in the two study years are probably due to small variations in climatic conditions between the two years and they did not seem to have a major impact on ring widths and latewood percentages, which are two important parameters affecting wood quality in ring porous wood species.Rad obra─Ĺuje stvaranje drva pitomog kestena (Castanea sativa) tijekom vegetacije u 2008. i 2009. godini. Uspore─Ĺuje se dinamika stvaranja drva u te dvije godine i raspravlja o mogu─çem utjecaju na njegovu kvalitetu. Za tu su svrhu s deset stabala pitomog kestena u planinama Cimini, pokraj mjesta Viterbo u sredi┼ínjoj Italiji, u tjednim intervalima skupljeni mikroizvrtci koji su sadr┼żavali drvo, kambij i floem. Po─Źetak stvaranja drva u 2008. godini dogodio se prije uzimanja prvih uzoraka 17. travnja 2008. Po─Źetak lignifikacije prvooblikovanih traheja primije─çen je oko 23. travnja (dan u godini DOY 113,8 ┬▒ 5,3), a prve traheje kasnog drva primije─çene su oko 5. lipnja (DOY 156,5 ┬▒ 7,7). Stvaranje kasnog drva nastavljeno je do 29. rujna 2008. (DOY 273,9 ┬▒ 10,5), kad su zavr┼íne stanice novostvorenoga goda drva bile potpuno lignificirane. U 2009. godini glavne su se faze stvaranja drva uglavnom pojavile ranije nego u 2008. godini. ┼áirenje traheja ranog drva primije─çeno je oko 10. travnja (DOY 99,7 ┬▒ 6,1), po─Źetak lignifikacije oko 22. travnja (DOY 111,9 ┬▒ 7,4), a prve traheje kasnog drva oko 28. svibnja 2009. (DOY 147,9 ┬▒ 4,7). Lignifi kacija zadnjih proizvedenih stanica zavr┼íena je do 26. rujna 2009. (DOY 273,9 ┬▒ 10,5). Prosje─Źno trajanje stvaranja goda drva u 2008. godini iznosilo je 161 dan, a u 2009. godini 169 dana. Prosje─Źne ┼íirine godova bile su 3296 ┬▒ 1514 ╬╝m u 2008. godini i 3166 ┬▒ 1073 ╬╝m u 2009. godini, a postotni udjel kasnog drva iznosio je 76 i 74% godova u 2008., odnosno u 2009. godini. Male razlike u vremenu po─Źetka pojedine faza stvaranja drva u dvjema promatranim godinama vjerojatno su posljedica malih varijacija klimatskih uvjeta izme─Ĺu te dvije godine i ─Źini se da nemaju velik utjecaj na ┼íirinu godova ni na postotak kasnog drva, a to su dva va┼żna ─Źimbenika koji utje─Źu na kvalitetu drva prstenasto poroznih vrsta

    Main phases of wood formation in chestnut (Castanea sativa) in Central Italy: comparison of seasons 2008 and 2009

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    We present wood formation in chestnut (Castanea sativa) during the growing seasons 2008 and 2009, compare its dynamics in the two years and discuss possible effects on wood quality. To this purpose, microcores containing wood, cambium and phloem were collected at weekly intervals from 10 chestnut trees growing at the Cimini mountains near Viterbo, Central Italy. In 2008, the onset of wood formation started before the first sampling on 17 April 2008. Onset of lignifi cation of the fi rst formed vessels was observed around 23 April (day of the year DOY 113.8 ┬▒ 5.3) and the fi rst latewood vessels were observed around 5 June 2008 (DOY 156.5 ┬▒ 7.7). Latewood formation continued until 29 September 2008 (DOY 273.9 ┬▒ 10.5) when the terminal cells of the newly formed xylem ring were fully lignifi ed. In 2009, the main phases of wood formation generally occurred earlier than in 2008. The expansion of earlywood vessels was observed around 10 April (DOY 99.7 ┬▒ 6.1), the onset of lignifi cation around 22 April (DOY 111.9 ┬▒ 7.4) and the first latewood vessels around 28 May 2009 (DOY 147.9 ┬▒ 4.7). Lignifi cation of the last formed cells was completed by 26 September 2009 (DOY 273.9 ┬▒ 10.5). The average duration of tree-ring formation was 161 days in 2008 and 169 days in 2009, the average ring widths were 3296 ┬▒ 1514 ╬╝m in 2008 and 3166 ┬▒ 1073 ╬╝m in 2009, and latewood percentages comprised 76% and 74% of the 2008 and 2009 tree-rings, respectively. The small differences in timing of wood formation phases in the two study years are probably due to small variations in climatic conditions between the two years and they did not seem to have a major impact on ring widths and latewood percentages, which are two important parameters affecting wood quality in ring porous wood species

    Makroekonomski u─Źinki proizvodnje in predelave lesa listavcev

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    V Sloveniji imamo z vidika izkori┼í─Źenosti potenciala dodane vrednosti sortimentov lesa listavcev izrazite rezerve. Slednje bi lahko izkoristili zlasti s pove─Źanjem gospodarske rabe okroglega lesa znotraj Slovenije ter s krepitvijo tehnolo┼íko naprednej┼íih na─Źinov predelave okroglega lesa. Cilj te raziskave je z input-output modeliranjem oceniti neizkori┼í─Źene potenciale gozdno-lesne verige v Sloveniji, s poudarkom na rabi lesa listavcev. Za celotno gozdno-lesno verigo smo ovrednotili obstoje─Źe stanje in predvideli pet scenarijev nadgradnje gozdno-lesne verige v slovenskem prostoru. Razvili smo nacionalni input-output model za ovrednotenje mo┼żnih scenarijev prihodnjega razvoja gozdno-lesnega biogospodarstva. Iz rezultatov scenarijske analize input-output modela je razvidno, da lahko slovensko gozdno-lesno biogospodarstvo preko prestrukturiranja gospodarskih aktivnosti v prihodnosti dose┼że do 20 % vi┼íjo vrednost proizvodnje sektorja, pove─Źanje ┼ítevila zaposlenih za 24 % ter pove─Źanje dohodka gospodinjstev za 19 %. V prispevku razpravljamo, kako bi nadgradnjo gozdno-lesnega biogospodarstva (glede na opredeljene scenarije) lahko dosegli s pove─Źanjem kapacitet predelave lesa listavcev in podajamo priporo─Źila nosilcem odlo─Źanj

    Wood formation in beech from two sites at different altitudes

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    Predstavljamo ─Źasovno dinamiko kambijeve aktivnosti in nastanka lesa pri bukvi (Fagus sylvatica L.) z rasti┼í─Źa Pan┼íka reka (400 m n.m.v.) in Menina planina (1200 m n.m.v.) v letu 2008. Raziskave smo opravili na tkivih lesa, kambija in skorje, odvzetih iz odraslih dreves s pomo─Źjo metode mikro vzor─Źenja v tedenskih intervalih med vegetacijsko dobo. Delitve v kambiju so se na Pan┼íki reki za─Źele prej (med 14. aprilom in 12. majem) in zaklju─Źile kasneje (med 30. junijem in 25. avgustom) kot na Menini planini (za─Źetek med 16. in 23. majem ter zaklju─Źek med 30. junijem in 25. julijem). Najintenzivnej┼íe celi─Źne delitve smo na obeh rasti┼í─Źih zabele┼żili nekaj dni pred poletnim solsticijem. Na Pan┼íki reki je nastajanje lesa trajalo od 11 do 19 tednov, srednja ┼íirina branike pa je bila pribli┼żno 3 mm. Na Menini planini je nastajanje lesa trajalo 6 do 7 tednov, srednja ┼íirina branike pa je bila pribli┼żno 1 mm. Na Pan┼íki reki so bili tedenski prirastki lesa v povpre─Źju skoraj trikrat ve─Źji kot na Menini planini, ve─Źja je bila tudi variabilnost med drevesi. To so potrdile tudi dendrokronolo┼íke raziskave. Primerjave lokalnih kronologij ┼íirin branik nakazujejo, da na Pan┼íki reki poletne visoke temperature in poletna su┼ía negativno vplivajo na ┼íirine branik, na Menini planini pa vladajo visokogorske razmere, kjer imajo vi┼íje poletne temperature pozitiven vpliv na rast.We present the dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) from two sites Pan┼íka reka (400 m a.s.l.) and Menina planina (1200 m a.s.l.) in 2008. Research was conducted on the tissues of wood, cambium and bark taken from adult trees using the micro-coring technique. The cores were taken at weekly intervals during the vegetation period. Cambial divisions began at Pan┼íka reka earlier (between 14 April and 12 May) and finished later (between 30 June and 25 August) than at Menina planina (onset between 16 and 23 May, end between 30 June and 25 July). The highest cell production was recorded at both sites few days before the summer solstice. At Pan┼íka reka, the formation of tree-ring lasted 11 to 19 weeks and the mean tree-ring width was about 3 mm. At Menina planina the production of wood lasted 6 to 7 weeks, and the mean tree-ring width was 1 mm. Greater variability among trees at Pan┼íka reka was also confirmed with dendrochronological investigations. Comparisons of local tree-ring chronologies indicated that summer drought and high summer temperatures negatively affected variation of tree-ring widths at Pan┼íka reka. The situation at Menina planina corresponded to high mountain conditions where higher summer temperatures positively affect the growth

    Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

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    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48ÔÇô75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris.Publishe
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