92 research outputs found

    Whole genome sequencing and spatial analysis identifies recent tuberculosis transmission hotspots in Ghana

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    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is progressively being used to investigate the transmission dynamics of; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; complex (MTBC). We used WGS analysis to resolve traditional genotype clusters and explored the spatial distribution of confirmed recent transmission clusters. Bacterial genomes from a total of 452 MTBC isolates belonging to large traditional clusters from a population-based study spanning July 2012 and December 2015 were obtained through short read next-generation sequencing using the illumina HiSeq2500 platform. We performed clustering and spatial analysis using specified R packages and ArcGIS. Of the 452 traditional genotype clustered genomes, 314 (69.5%) were confirmed clusters with a median cluster size of 7.5 genomes and an interquartile range of 4-12. Recent tuberculosis (TB) transmission was estimated as 24.7%. We confirmed the wide spread of a Cameroon sub-lineage clone with a cluster size of 78 genomes predominantly from the Ablekuma sub-district of Accra metropolis. More importantly, we identified a recent transmission cluster associated with isoniazid resistance belonging to the Ghana sub-lineage of lineage 4. WGS was useful in detecting unsuspected outbreaks; hence, we recommend its use not only as a research tool but as a surveillance tool to aid in providing the necessary guided steps to track, monitor, and control TB

    Molecular epidemiology and whole genome sequencing analysis of clinical Mycobacterium bovis from Ghana.

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    BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a re-emerging problem in both livestock and humans. The association of some M. bovis strains with hyper-virulence, MDR-TB and disseminated disease makes it imperative to understand the biology of the pathogen. METHODS: Mycobacterium bovis (15) among 1755 M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolated between 2012 and 2014 were characterized and analyzed for associated patient demography and other risk factors. Five of the M. bovis isolates were whole-genome sequenced and comparatively analyzed against a global collection of published M. bovis genomes. RESULTS: Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 3/560(0.5%) females and 12/1195(1.0%) males with pulmonary TB. The average age of M. bovis infected cases was 46.8 years (7-72years). TB patients from the Northern region of Ghana (1.9%;4/212) had a higher rate of infection with M. bovis (OR = 2.7,p = 0.0968) compared to those from the Greater Accra region (0.7%;11/1543). Among TB patients with available HIV status, the odds of isolating M. bovis from HIV patients (2/119) was 3.3 higher relative to non-HIV patients (4/774). Direct contact with livestock or their unpasteurized products was significantly associated with bTB (p<0.0001, OR = 124.4,95% CI = 30.1-508.3). Two (13.3%) of the M. bovis isolates were INH resistant due to the S315T mutation in katG whereas one (6.7%) was RIF resistant with Q432P and I1491S mutations in rpoB. M. bovis from Ghana resolved as mono-phyletic branch among mostly M. bovis from Africa irrespective of the host and were closest to the root of the global M. bovis phylogeny. M. bovis-specific amino acid mutations were detected among MTBC core genes such as mce1A, mmpL1, pks6, phoT, pstB, glgP and Rv2955c. Additional mutations P6T in chaA, G187E in mgtC, T35A in Rv1979c, S387A in narK1, L400F in fas and A563T in eccA1 were restricted to the 5 clinical M. bovis from Ghana. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate potential zoonotic transmission of bTB in Ghana and hence calls for intensified public education on bTB, especially among risk groups

    Positive and negative well-being and objectively measured sedentary behaviour in older adults: evidence from three cohorts

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    Background: Sedentary behaviour is related to poorer health independently of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wellbeing or symptoms of anxiety or depression predict sedentary behaviour in older adults. Method: Participants were drawn from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ271), and the West of Scotland Twenty-07 1950s (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ309) and 1930s (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ118) cohorts. Sedentary outcomes, sedentary time, and number of sit-to-stand transitions, were measured with a three-dimensional accelerometer (activPAL activity monitor) worn for 7‚ÄČdays. In the Twenty-07 cohorts, symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed in 2008 and sedentary outcomes were assessed ~‚ÄČ8‚ÄČyears later in 2015 and 2016. In the LBC1936 cohort, wellbeing and symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed concurrently with sedentary behaviour in 2015 and 2016. We tested for an association between wellbeing, anxiety or depression and the sedentary outcomes using multivariate regression analysis. Results: We observed no association between wellbeing or symptoms of anxiety and the sedentary outcomes. Symptoms of depression were positively associated with sedentary time in the LBC1936 and Twenty-07 1950s cohort, and negatively associated with number of sit-to-stand transitions in the LBC1936. Meta-analytic estimates of the association between depressive symptoms and sedentary time or number of sit-to-stand transitions, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, long-standing illness, and education, were ő≤‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.11 (95% CI‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.03, 0.18) and ő≤‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ‚ąí‚ÄČ0.11 (95% CI‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ‚ąí‚ÄČ0.19, ‚ąí0.03) respectively. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that depressive symptoms are positively associated with sedentary behavior. Future studies should investigate the causal direction of this association

    Reduced transmission of Mycobacterium africanum compared to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urban West Africa

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    Understanding transmission dynamics is useful for tuberculosis (TB) control. A population-based molecular epidemiological study was conducted to determine TB transmission in Ghana.; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates obtained from prospectively sampled pulmonary TB patients between July 2012 and December 2015 were characterized using spoligotyping and standard 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing for transmission studies.; Out of 2309 MTBC isolates, 1082 (46.9%) unique cases were identified, with 1227 (53.1%) isolates belonging to one of 276 clusters. The recent TB transmission rate was estimated to be 41.2%. Whereas TB strains of lineage 4 belonging to M. tuberculosis showed a high recent transmission rate (44.9%), reduced recent transmission rates were found for lineages of Mycobacterium africanum (lineage 5, 31.8%; lineage 6, 24.7%).; The study findings indicate high recent TB transmission, suggesting the occurrence of unsuspected outbreaks in Ghana. The observed reduced transmission rate of M. africanum suggests other factor(s) (host/environmental) may be responsible for its continuous presence in West Africa

    TB-diabetes co-morbidity in Ghana : the importance of Mycobacterium africanum infection

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    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) but little is known on TB-Diabetes Mellitus (TBDM) co-morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa.; Consecutive TB cases registered at a tertiary facility in Ghana were recruited from September 2012 to April 2016 and screened for DM using random blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. TB patients were tested for other clinical parameters including HIV co-infection and TB lesion location. Mycobacterial isolates obtained from collected sputum samples were characterized by standard methods. Associations between TBDM patients' epidemiological as well as microbiological variables were assessed.; The prevalence of DM at time of diagnosis among 2990 enrolled TB cases was 9.4% (282/2990). TBDM cases were significantly associated with weight loss, poor appetite, night sweat and fatigue (p&lt;0.001) and were more likely (p&lt;0.001) to have lower lung cavitation 85.8% (242/282) compared to TB Non-Diabetic (TBNDM) patients 3.3% (90/2708). We observed 22.3% (63/282) treatment failures among TBDM patients compared to 3.8% (102/2708) among TBNDM patients (p&lt;0.001). We found no significant difference in the TBDM burden attributed by M. tuberculosis sensu stricto (Mtbss) and Mycobacterium africanum (Maf) and (Mtbss; 176/1836, 9.6% and Maf; 53/468, 11.3%, p = 0.2612). We found that diabetic individuals were suggestively likely to present with TB caused by M. africanum Lineage 6 as opposed to Mtbss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-2.42, p = 0.072).; Our findings confirms the importance of screening for diabetes during TB diagnosis and highlights the association between genetic diversity and diabetes. in Ghana

    Phylogenomics of Mycobacterium africanum reveals a new lineage and a complex evolutionary history.

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    Human tuberculosis (TB) is caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The MTBC comprises several human-adapted lineages known as M. tuberculosis sensu stricto, as well as two lineages (L5 and L6) traditionally referred to as Mycobacterium africanum. Strains of L5 and L6 are largely limited to West Africa for reasons unknown, and little is known of their genomic diversity, phylogeography and evolution. Here, we analysed the genomes of 350‚ÄČL5 and 320‚ÄČL6 strains, isolated from patients from 21 African countries, plus 5 related genomes that had not been classified into any of the known MTBC lineages. Our population genomic and phylogeographical analyses showed that the unclassified genomes belonged to a new group that we propose to name MTBC lineage 9 (L9). While the most likely ancestral distribution of L9 was predicted to be East Africa, the most likely ancestral distribution for both L5 and L6 was the Eastern part of West Africa. Moreover, we found important differences between L5 and L6 strains with respect to their phylogeographical substructure and genetic diversity. Finally, we could not confirm the previous association of drug-resistance markers with lineage and sublineages. Instead, our results indicate that the association of drug resistance with lineage is most likely driven by sample bias or geography. In conclusion, our study sheds new light onto the genomic diversity and evolutionary history of M. africanum, and highlights the need to consider the particularities of each MTBC lineage for understanding the ecology and epidemiology of TB in Africa and globally

    Comparative genomics of Mycobacterium africanum Lineage 5 and Lineage 6 from Ghana suggests distinct ecological niches.

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    Mycobacterium africanum (Maf) causes a substantial proportion of human tuberculosis in some countries of West Africa, but little is known on this pathogen. We compared the genomes of 253 Maf clinical isolates from Ghana, including N‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ175 Lineage 5 (L5) and N‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ78 Lineage 6 (L6). We found that the genomic diversity of L6 was higher than in L5 despite the smaller sample size. Regulatory proteins appeared to evolve neutrally in L5 but under purifying selection in L6. Even though over 90% of the human T cell epitopes were conserved in both lineages, L6 showed a higher ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous single nucleotide variation in these epitopes overall compared to L5. Of the 10% human T cell epitopes that were variable, most carried mutations that were lineage-specific. Our findings indicate that Maf L5 and L6 differ in some of their population genomic characteristics, possibly reflecting different selection pressures linked to distinct ecological niches
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