79 research outputs found

    Nearctic \u3ci\u3eAcleris\u3c/i\u3e: Resurrection of \u3ci\u3eA. Stadiana\u3c/i\u3e and a Revised Identity for \u3ci\u3eA. Semiannula\u3c/i\u3e (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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    Type study showed that Acleris stadiana (Barnes & Busck), currently considered a junior synonym of A. semiannula (Robinson), is in fact a distinct taxon. Although superficially similar, these taxa differ markedly in genital structure. In males of A. semiannula, the aedeagus is short, broad, and virtually straight, whereas in those of A. stadiana, it is long, thin, and sharply bent. What was known in literature as A. semiannula proved to be A. stadi­ana. We redefine both A. semiannula and the resurrected A. stadiana

    Leaf Mining Insects and Their Parasitoids in the Old-Growth Forest of the Huron Mountains

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    Leaf mining insects in an old-growth forest along the south central shore of Lake Superior in Michigan are documented. We present the results of a 13-year survey of leaf mining species, larval hosts, seasonal occurrence, and parasitoids, as well as report biological observations. Representative larvae, mines, adults, and parasitoids were preserved. Among the larval host associations, 15 are reported as new. Additionally, 42 parasitoid taxa were identified resulting in six first reports from the New World and 32 new host associations. Two undescribed species (Gelechiidae and Figitidae) discovered through this research were described in earlier publications

    Leaf Mining Insects and Their Parasitoids in the Old-Growth Forest of the Huron Mountains

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    Leaf mining insects in an old-growth forest along the south central shore of Lake Superior in Michigan are documented. We present the results of a 13-year survey of leaf mining species, larval hosts, seasonal occurrence, and parasitoids, as well as report biological observations. Representative larvae, mines, adults, and parasitoids were preserved. Among the larval host associations, 15 are reported as new. Additionally, 42 parasitoid taxa were identified resulting in six first reports from the New World and 32 new host associations. Two undescribed species (Gelechiidae and Figitidae) discovered through this research were described in earlier publications

    Dose and Dose Rate-Dependent Effects of Low-Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Parameters in ApoE-Deficient and Wild Type Mice

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    Anti-inflammatory low-dose therapy is well established, whereas the immunomodulatory impact of doses below 0.1 Gy is much less clear. In this study, we investigated dose, dose rate and time-dependent effects in a dose range of 0.005 to 2 Gy on immune parameters after whole body irradiation (IR) using a pro-inflammatory (ApoE−/−) and a wild type mouse model. Long-term effects on spleen function (proliferation, monocyte expression) were analyzed 3 months, and short-term effects on immune plasma parameters (IL6, IL10, IL12p70, KC, MCP1, INFγ, TGFβ, fibrinogen, sICAM, sVCAM, sE-selectin/CD62) were analyzed 1, 7 and 28 days after Co60 γ-irradiation (IR) at low dose rate (LDR, 0.001 Gy/day) and at high dose rate (HDR). In vitro measurements of murine monocyte (WEHI-274.1) adhesion and cytokine release (KC, MCP1, IL6, TGFβ) after low-dose IR (150 kV X-ray unit) of murine endothelial cell (EC) lines (H5V, mlEND1, bEND3) supplement the data. RT-PCR revealed significant reduction of Ki67 and CD68 expression in the spleen of ApoE−/− mice after 0.025 to 2 Gy exposure at HDR, but only after 2 Gy at LDR. Plasma levels in wild type mice, showed non-linear time-dependent induction of proinflammatory cytokines and reduction of TGFβ at doses as low as 0.005 Gy at both dose rates, whereas sICAM and fibrinogen levels changed in a dose rate-specific manner. In ApoE−/− mice, levels of sICAM increased and fibrinogen decreased at both dose rates, whereas TGFβ increased mainly at HDR. Non-irradiated plasma samples revealed significant age-related enhancement of cytokines and adhesion molecules except for sICAM. In vitro data indicate that endothelial cells may contribute to systemic IR effects and confirm changes of adhesion properties suggested by altered sICAM plasma levels. The differential immunomodulatory effects shown here provide insights in inflammatory changes occurring at doses far below standard anti-inflammatory therapy and are of particular importance after diagnostic and chronic environmental exposures

    Rules for Growth: Promoting Innovation and Growth Through Legal Reform

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    The United States economy is struggling to recover from its worst economic downturn since the Great Depression. After several huge doses of conventional macroeconomic stimulus - deficit-spending and monetary stimulus - policymakers are understandably eager to find innovative no-cost ways of sustaining growth both in the short and long runs. In response to this challenge, the Kauffman Foundation convened a number of America’s leading legal scholars and social scientists during the summer of 2010 to present and discuss their ideas for changing legal rules and policies to promote innovation and accelerate U.S. economic growth. This meeting led to the publication of Rules for Growth: Promoting Innovation and Growth Through Legal Reform, a comprehensive and groundbreaking volume of essays prescribing a new set of growth-promoting policies for policymakers, legal scholars, economists, and business men and women. Some of the top Rules include: • Reforming U.S. immigration laws so that more high-skilled immigrants can launch businesses in the United States. • Improving university technology licensing practices so university-generated innovation is more quickly and efficiently commercialized. • Moving away from taxes on income that penalize risk-taking, innovation, and employment while shifting toward a more consumption-based tax system that encourages saving that funds investment. In addition, the research tax credit should be redesigned and made permanent. • Overhauling local zoning rules to facilitate the formation of innovative companies. • Urging judges to take a more expansive view of flexible business contracts that are increasingly used by innovative firms. • Urging antitrust enforcers and courts to define markets more in global terms to reflect contemporary realities, resist antitrust enforcement from countries with less sound antitrust regimes, and prohibit industry trade protection and subsidies. • Reforming the intellectual property system to allow for a post-grant opposition process and address the large patent application backlog by allowing applicants to pay for more rapid patent reviews. • Authorizing corporate entities to form digitally and use software as a means for setting out agreements and bylaws governing corporate activities. The collective essays in the book propose a new way of thinking about the legal system that should be of interest to policymakers and academic scholars alike. Moreover, the ideas presented here, if embodied in law, would augment a sustained increase in U.S. economic growth, improving living standards for U.S. residents and for many in the rest of the world

    Fine-scale Explosive Energy Release at Sites of Prospective Magnetic Flux Cancellation in the Core of the Solar Active Region Observed by Hi-C 2.1, IRIS, and SDO

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    The second Hi-C flight (Hi-C 2.1) provided unprecedentedly high spatial and temporal resolution (~250 km, 4.4 s) coronal EUV images of Fe ix/x emission at 172 Å of AR 12712 on 2018 May 29, during 18:56:21–19:01:56 UT. Three morphologically different types (I: dot-like; II: loop-like; III: surge/jet-like) of fine-scale sudden-brightening events (tiny microflares) are seen within and at the ends of an arch filament system in the core of the AR. Although type Is (not reported before) resemble IRIS bombs (in size, and brightness with respect to surroundings), our dot-like events are apparently much hotter and shorter in span (70 s). We complement the 5 minute duration Hi-C 2.1 data with SDO/HMI magnetograms, SDO/AIA EUV images, and IRIS UV spectra and slit-jaw images to examine, at the sites of these events, brightenings and flows in the transition region and corona and evolution of magnetic flux in the photosphere. Most, if not all, of the events are seated at sites of opposite-polarity magnetic flux convergence (sometimes driven by adjacent flux emergence), implying likely flux cancellation at the microflare's polarity inversion line. In the IRIS spectra and images, we find confirming evidence of field-aligned outflow from brightenings at the ends of loops of the arch filament system. In types I and II the explosion is confined, while in type III the explosion is ejective and drives jet-like outflow. The light curves from Hi-C, AIA, and IRIS peak nearly simultaneously for many of these events, and none of the events display a systematic cooling sequence as seen in typical coronal flares, suggesting that these tiny brightening events have chromospheric/transition region origin

    Noncomparabilities & Non Standard Logics

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    Many normative theories set forth in the welfare economics, distributive justice and cognate literatures posit noncomparabilities or incommensurabilities between magnitudes of various kinds. In some cases these gaps are predicated on metaphysical claims, in others upon epistemic claims, and in still others upon political-moral claims. I show that in all such cases they are best given formal expression in nonstandard logics that reject bivalence, excluded middle, or both. I do so by reference to an illustrative case study: a contradiction known to beset John Rawls\u27s selection and characterization of primary goods as the proper distribuendum in any distributively just society. The contradiction is avoided only by reformulating Rawls\u27s claims in a nonstandard form, which form happens also to cohere quite attractively with Rawls\u27s intuitive argumentation on behalf of his claims

    Phase-mixing in Dissipative Alfven Waves

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    The phase-mixing mechanism first proposed as a coronal heating mechanism by Heyvaerts and Priest (1983) is examined using a length-scale analysis adapted from Cally (1991). This allows parameter ranges other than those studied by Heyvaerts and Priest (1983) to be described, together with a detailed examination of the transfer of energy to both longer and shorter length-scales as the Alfven wave front evolves in the solar corona. The results of Heyvaerts and Priest (1983) are largely confirmed, but with some notable differences. Energy initially at smaller length-scales decays faster than their rate, because the plasma is more strongly dissipative at smaller length-scales. The full inclusion of diffusion across field lines also leads to smoother Alfven wavefronts.</p
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