14 research outputs found

    Rashid Jahan: A Writer Created by her Surroundings

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    Rashid Jahan’s repertoire as a writer is not very impressive when it comes to its literary finesse but the themes of her works which are driven by the socio-political and cultural contexts, are very candid and progressive. The interpretation of her surroundings, which shape her writings the way they are, is very crucial to understanding of her works. She is a product of her times and the sole purpose of her life was to rebel against the hypocrisies of the society and uplift the society for the good of everyone. Rashid Jahan brings freshness of realistic insights, logic and scientific inclination to otherwise romantic Urdu Literature. This paper is an attempt to focus on the surroundings and times of Rashid Jahan which are the blood and soul of Rashid Jahan’s works

    The Dynamics of Binodini’s Character in Rabindranath Tagore’s Chokher Bali

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    Chokher Bali is considered as one of the best-known works of Rabindranath Tagore. The novel is a character-based work which is completely progressive in its essence. Binodini, the protagonist, is personification of intellect, grace, femininity, commitment and skills. She is a woman of desire in spite of being a widow. She is dreamer but at the same time deeply attached with her roots and reality. The dynamics of her character, the subtle nuances which she depicts are the epitome of aesthetic development in a character for the need of the plot. She rebels and out rightly rejects the paradigm of widowhood set by the patriarchy. The way Tagore portrays her character even the negatives, the flaws, the shortcomings in Binodini, appear to be very natural and spontaneous. Widowhood is all about seclusion and loneliness and the character of Binodini is all about debunking and shattering the myths related to widowhood. This paper is an attempt to focus on the artistic character of Binodini and realism attached with her aspirations

    Perspectives on Poetic Language Construction of Identity through Language

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    The present research article aims to investigate the intricate tapestry of language and its profound role in shaping and conveying human identity. One of the most pivotal movements in the intellectual history of the twentieth century revolves around the exploration and understanding of language and its fundamental roles in the human experience. Since the dawn of civilization, language has served as the conduit for narrating, preserving, and influencing the multifaceted dimensions of human experience. It stands as a reflection and assertion of individual and collective identity, offering insights into the diverse ways through which human beings perceive, interact with, and interpret the world around them. This article embarks on a comprehensive examination of the burgeoning human interest in language, transcending its functional use as a mere tool for communication. It scrutinizes the significant transformation in the conceptualization of language, primarily initiated in the twentieth century, wherein language evolved to be seen not just as a medium of communication but as a crucial construct that interlaces with diverse dimensions of human existence and identity. The study delves into various facets of language, encompassing its poetic dimensions, which provide a rich, multi-layered platform for the exploration and expression of identity. Drawing on interdisciplinary perspectives, the article explores the symbiotic relationship between language and identity, acknowledging the myriad ways through which language informs, shapes, and is shaped by human identity. It investigates the poetic construction of language, unveiling the nuanced ways in which language, particularly in its poetic form, serves as a powerful instrument for the articulation and construction of identity. There is a dynamic interplay between language and identity, providing a robust foundation for future research and exploration in the realm of language studies, with a particular focus on its poetic dimensions and its role in the construction of identity. The paper seeks to contribute to the ongoing discourse on language, adding depth and breadth to the understanding of its multifarious roles in the human experience, particularly in the context of identity construction through poetic language

    Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats

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    Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X) in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration

    A mathematical model of neuroinflammation in severe clinical traumatic brain injury

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    Abstract Background Understanding the interdependencies among inflammatory mediators of tissue damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is essential in providing effective, patient-specific care. Activated microglia and elevated concentrations of inflammatory signaling molecules reflect the complex cascades associated with acute neuroinflammation and are predictive of recovery after TBI. However, clinical TBI studies to date have not focused on modeling the dynamic temporal patterns of simultaneously evolving inflammatory mediators, which has potential in guiding the design of future immunomodulation intervention studies. Methods We derived a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations (ODE) to represent interactions between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, M1- and M2-like microglia, and central nervous system (CNS) tissue damage. We incorporated variables for several cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-12, known to have roles in microglial activation and phenotype differentiation. The model was fit to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine data, collected during the first 5 days post-injury in n = 89 adults with severe TBI. Ensembles of model fits were produced for three patient subgroups: (1) a favorable outcome group (GOS = 4,5) and (2) an unfavorable outcome group (GOS = 1,2,3) both with lower pro-inflammatory load, and (3) an unfavorable outcome group (GOS = 1,2,3) with higher pro-inflammatory load. Differences in parameter distributions between subgroups were ranked using Bhattacharyya metrics to identify mechanistic differences underlying the neuroinflammatory patterns of patient groups with different TBI outcomes. Results Optimal model fits to data showed different microglial and damage responses by patient subgroup. Upon comparison of model parameter distributions, unfavorable outcome groups were characterized by either a prolonged, pathophysiological or a transient, sub-physiological course of neuroinflammation. Conclusion By developing a mathematical characterization of inflammatory processes informed by clinical data, we have created a system for exploring links between acute neuroinflammatory components and patient outcome in severe TBI

    High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections among primary school children, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2015

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    Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections often affect the poorest and most deprived communities. In order to generate reliable data for planning a school based deworming program, we conducted a survey among primary school children studying in government schools in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The objectives of our survey were to estimate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among children studying in 130 primary schools from 9 agro-climatic zones, during May – August 2015. Information about socio-demographic details, defecation and hand-hygiene practices, and stool samples were collected from the school children. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz method. Results Stool samples from 6421 school children were examined. The overall weighted prevalence of any STH in the State was 75.6% (95% CI: 71.2–79.5). The prevalence was more than 50% in six of the nine agro-climatic zones. A. lumbricoides was the most prevalent STH (prevalence: 69.6%), followed by hookworm (prevalence: 22.6%) and T. trichura (4.6%). The majority of the STH infections were of low intensity. The practice of open defecation and not washing hands with soap after defecation and residence in kutcha house were significant risk factors of STH infection. Conclusions STH prevalence among primary school children in Uttar Pradesh was high. Given the WHO guidelines on deworming frequency according to STH prevalence, Govt of Uttar Pradesh needs to implement a school-based deworming program with bi-annual frequency. The findings of our survey would also help monitor the performance of school based deworming programme
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