131 research outputs found

    The SST Fully-Synchronous Multi-GHz Analog Waveform Recorder with Nyquist-Rate Bandwidth and Flexible Trigger Capabilities

    Full text link
    The design and performance of a fully-synchronous multi-GHz analog transient waveform recorder I.C. ("SST") with fast and flexible trigger capabilities is presented. The SST's objective is to provide multi-GHz sample rates with intrinsically-stable timing, Nyquist-rate sampling and high trigger bandwidth, wide dynamic range and simple operation. Containing 4 channels of 256 samples per channel, the SST is fabricated in an inexpensive 0.25 micrometer CMOS process and uses a high-performance package that is 8 mm on a side. It has a 1.9V input range on a 2.5V supply, exceeds 12 bits of dynamic range, and uses ~128 mW while operating at 2 G-samples/s and full trigger rates. With a standard 50 Ohm input source, the SST exceeds ~1.5 GHz -3 dB bandwidth. The SST's internal sample clocks are generated synchronously via a shift register driven by an external LVDS oscillator running at half the sample rate (e.g., a 1 GHz oscillator yields 2 G-samples/s). Because of its purely-digital synchronous nature, the SST has ps-level timing uniformity that is independent of sample frequencies spanning over 6 orders of magnitude: from under 2 kHz to over 2 GHz. Only three active control lines are necessary for operation: Reset, Start/Stop and Read-Clock. When operating as common-stop device, the time of the stop, modulo 256 relative to the start, is read out along with the sampled signal values. Each of the four channels integrates dual-threshold trigger circuitry with windowed coincidence features. Channels can discriminate signals with ~1mV RMS resolution at >600 MHz bandwidth.Comment: 3 pages, 6 figures, 1 table, submitted for publication in the Conference Record of the 2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Seattle, WA, November 201

    The SST Multi-G-Sample/s Switched Capacitor Array Waveform Recorder with Flexible Trigger and Picosecond-Level Timing Accuracy

    Full text link
    The design and performance of a multi-G-sample/s fully-synchronous analog transient waveform recorder I.C. ("SST") with fast and flexible trigger capabilities is presented. Containing 4 channels of 256 samples per channel and fabricated in a 0.25 {\mu}m CMOS process, it has a 1.9V input range on a 2.5V supply, achieves 12 bits of dynamic range, and uses ~160 mW while operating at 2 G-samples/s and full trigger speeds. With a standard 50 Ohm input source, the SST's analog input bandwidth is ~1.3 GHz within about +/-0.5 dB and reaches a -3 dB bandwidth of 1.5 GHz. The SST's internal sample clocks are generated synchronously via a shift register driven by an external LVDS oscillator, interleaved to double its speed (e.g., a 1 GHz clock yields 2 G-samples/s). It can operate over 6 orders of magnitude in sample rates (2 kHz to 2 GHz). Only three active control lines are necessary for operation: Reset, Start/Stop and Read-Clock. Each of the four channels integrates dual-threshold discrimination of signals with ~1 mV RMS resolution at >600 MHz bandwidth. Comparator results are directly available for simple threshold monitoring and rate control. The High and Low discrimination can also be AND'd over an adjustable window of time in order to exclusively trigger on bipolar impulsive signals. Trigger outputs can be CMOS or low-voltage differential signals, e.g. 1.2V CMOS or positive-ECL (0-0.8V) for low noise. After calibration, the imprecision of timing differences between channels falls in a range of 1.12-2.37 ps sigma at 2 G-samples/s.Comment: 9 pages, 16 figures, 1 tabl

    Management of an incidentally found large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report

    Get PDF
    Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue. Most lesions are small, unilateral and asymptomatic, discovered incidentally at autopsy or on imaging studies performed for other reasons. We would like to present a case report of this rare tumour. Cross-sectional imaging is helpful in making a pre-operative diagnosis. The size of the lesion should be a criterion for surgical intervention

    AN OVERVIEW ON INFECTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL PRACTICES AND BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT (BMWM) IN COVID-19 ERA

    Get PDF
    The ongoing Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the almost entire world and has hit the healthcare and economic sector with a hard blow. The Government imposed lockdowns in almost all part of the world has not only affected the global economy but also has harsh effects on physical and mental health of people around the world. To date, there is no specific and defined treatment or vaccine available for its prophylaxis and treatment; hence preventive strategies like Infection prevention and control (IPC) practices and proper disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) play key role in preventing transmission of the infection in the healthcare sector among healthcare professionals. Ethically, we all should follow the IPC and BMW guidelines soulfully to prevent ourselves and fellow workers from getting infected. The review highlights the salient features of the IPC and BMWM (Biomedical waste management) practices in concise manner for better understanding and implementation at this crucial period of COVID-19 pandemic

    Enteral Calcium or Phosphorus Supplementation in Preterm or Low Birth Weight Infants: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVES To assess effects of calcium or phosphorous supplementation compared with no supplementation in human milk-fed preterm or low birth weight infants. METHODS Data sources include Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline and Embase. We included Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized trials (quasi-randomized). RESULTS Three studies (4 reports; 162 infants) were included. At latest follow-up (38 weeks), there was reduction in osteopenia (3 studies, 159 participants, relative risk 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46–0.99). At latest follow-up (6 weeks), there was no effect on weight (1 study, 40 participants, mean difference [MD] 138.50 g, 95% CI −82.16 to 359.16); length (1 study, 40 participants, MD 0.77 cm, 95% CI −0.93 to 2.47); and head circumference (1 study, 40 participants, MD 0.33 cm, 95% CI −0.30 to 0.96). At latest follow-up, there was no effect on alkaline phosphatase (55 weeks) (2 studies, 122 participants, MD −126.11 IU/L, 95% CI −298.5 to 46.27, I2 = 73.4%); serum calcium (6 weeks) (1 study, 40 participants, MD 0.54 mg/dL, 95% CI −0.19 to 1.27); and serum phosphorus (6 weeks) (1 study, 40 participants, MD 0.07 mg/dL, 95% CI −0.22 to 0.36). The certainty of evidence ranged from very low to low. No studies reported on mortality and neurodevelopment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS The evidence is insufficient to determine whether enteral supplementation with calcium or phosphorus for preterm or low birth weight infants who are fed mother's own milk or donor human milk is associated with benefit or harm.publishedVersio

    Enteral Zinc Supplementation in Preterm or Low Birth Weight Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Evidence on the effect of zinc supplementation on health outcomes in preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants is unclear. We estimated the effect of enteral zinc versus no zinc supplementation in human milk fed preterm or LBW infants on mortality, growth, morbidities, and neurodevelopment. METHODS Data sources include PubMed, Cochrane Central and Embase databases through March 24, 2021. Study selection was randomized or quazi-experimental trials. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted data, and assessed quality. We reported pooled relative risks (RR) for categorical outcomes, and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes. RESULTS Fourteen trials with 9940 preterm or LBW infants were included. Moderate to low certainty evidence showed that enteral zinc supplementation had little or no effect on mortality (risk ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46 to 1.16), but increased weight (MD 378.57, 95% CI 275.26 to 481.88), length (MD 2.92, 95% CI 1.53 to 4.31), head growth (MD 0.56, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.90), and decreased diarrhea (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.97). There was no effect on acute respiratory infections, bacterial sepsis, and psychomotor development scores. The effect of zinc supplementation on mental development scores is inconclusive. There was no evidence of serious adverse events. Eight trials had some concerns or high risk of bias, small-sized studies, and high heterogeneity between trials led to moderate to very low certainty of evidence. CONCLUSIONS Zinc supplementation in preterm or LBW infants have benefits on growth and diarrhea prevention. Further research is needed to generate better quality evidence.publishedVersio

    Cameron-Liebler sets of k-spaces in PG(n,q)

    Get PDF
    Cameron-Liebler sets of k-spaces were introduced recently by Y. Filmus and F. Ihringer. We list several equivalent definitions for these Cameron-Liebler sets, by making a generalization of known results about Cameron-Liebler line sets in PG(n, q) and Cameron-Liebler sets of k-spaces in PG(2k + 1, q). We also present a classification result

    Enteral Vitamin D Supplementation in Preterm or Low Birth Weight Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Many preterm and low birth weight (LBW) infants have low vitamin D stores. The objective of this study was to assess effects of enteral vitamin D supplementation compared with no vitamin D supplementation in human milk fed preterm or LBW infants. METHODS Data sources include Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase from inception to March 16, 2021. The study selection included randomized trials. Data were extracted and pooled with fixed and random-effects models. RESULTS We found 3 trials (2479 participants) that compared vitamin D to no vitamin D. At 6 months, there was increase in weight-for-age z-scores (mean difference 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01 to 0.22, 1 trial, 1273 participants), height-for-age z-scores (mean difference 0.12, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.21, 1 trial, 1258 participants); at 3 months there was decrease in vitamin D deficiency (risk ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.68, I2=58%, 2 trials, 504 participants) in vitamin D supplementation groups. However, there was little or no effect on mortality, any serious morbidity, hospitalization, head circumference, growth to 6 years and neurodevelopment. The certainty of evidence ranged from very low to moderate. Fourteen trials (1969 participants) assessed dose and reported no effect on mortality, morbidity, growth, or neurodevelopment, except on parathyroid hormone and vitamin D status. No studies assessed timing. Limitations include heterogeneity and small sample size in included studies. CONCLUSIONS Enteral vitamin D supplementation improves growth and vitamin D status in preterm and LBW infants.publishedVersio

    Utilisation, equity and determinants of full antenatal care in India: analysis from the National Family Health Survey 4

    Get PDF
    Objectives: We examined the utilisation, equity and determinants of full antenatal care (ANC), defined as 4 or more antenatal visits, at least one tetanus toxoid (TT) injection and consumption of iron folic acid (IFA) for a minimum of 100 days, in India. Methods: We analysed a sample of 190,898 women from India’s National Family Health Survey 4. Concentration curves and concentration index were used to assess equity in full ANC utilisation. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the factors associated with full ANC utilisation. Results: In India, 21% of pregnant women utilised full ANC, ranging from 2.3–65.9% across states. Overall, 51.6% had 4 or more ANC visits, 30.8% consumed IFA for atleast 100 days, and 91.1% had one or more doses of tetanus toxoid. Full ANC utilisation was inequitable across place of residence, caste and maternal education. Registration of pregnancy, utilisation of government’s Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and health insurance coverage were associated with higher odds of full ANC utilisation. Lower maternal education, lower wealth quintile(s), lack of father’s participation during antenatal visits, higher birth order, teenage and unintended pregnancy were associated with lower odds of full ANC utilisation. Conclusions: Full ANC utilisation in India was inadequate and inequitable. Although half of the women did not receive the minimum recommended ANC visits, the utilisation of TT immunisation was almost universal. The positive association of full ANC with ICDS utilisation and child’s father involvement may be leveraged for increasing the uptake of full ANC. Strategies to address the socio-demographic factors associated with low and inequitable utilisation of full ANC are imperative for strengthening India’s maternal health program.publishedVersio
    corecore