1,735 research outputs found

    Recombinant antibody against Trypanosoma cruzi from patients with chronic Chagas heart disease recognizes mammalian nervous system.

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    Background: To deeply understand the role of antibodies in the context of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, we decided to characterize A2R1, a parasite antibody selected from single-chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display libraries constructed from B cells of chronic Chagas heart disease patients. Methods: Immunoblot, ELISA, cytometry, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical assays were used to characterize A2R1 reactivity. To identify the antibody target, we performed an immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry and confirmed A2R1 specific interaction by producing the antigen in different expression systems. Based on these data, we carried out a comparative in silico analysis of the protein target_s orthologues, focusing mainly on post-translational modifications. Findings: A2R1 recognizes a parasite protein of ~50 kDa present in all life cycle stages of T. cruzi, as well as in other members of the kinetoplastid family, showing a defined immunofluorescence labeling pattern consistent with the cytoskeleton. A2R1 binds to tubulin, but this interaction relies on its post-translational modifications. Interestingly, this antibody also targets mammalian tubulin only present in brain, staining in and around cell bodies of the human peripheral and central nervous system. Interpretation: Our findings demonstrate for the first time the existence of a human antibody against T. cruzi tubulin capable of cross-reacting with a human neural protein. This work re-emphasizes the role of molecular mimicry between host and parasitic antigens in the development of pathological manifestations of T. cruzi infection

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation