468 research outputs found

    Inflammatory Markers Associated With Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

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    BackgroundDespite evidence for higher risk of coronary artery disease among HIV+ individuals, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated associations of inflammatory markers with subclinical coronary artery disease in 923 participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (575 HIV+ and 348 HIV- men) who underwent noncontrast computed tomography scans for coronary artery calcification, the majority (n=692) also undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography.Methods and resultsOutcomes included presence and extent of coronary artery calcification, plus computed tomography angiography analysis of presence, composition, and extent of coronary plaques and severity of coronary stenosis. HIV+ men had significantly higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, C-reactive protein, and soluble-tumor necrosis factor-α receptor (sTNFαR) I and II (all P<0.01) and a higher prevalence of noncalcified plaque (63% versus 54%, P=0.02) on computed tomography angiography. Among HIV+ men, for every SD increase in log-interleukin-6 and log intercellular adhesion molecule-1, there was a 30% and 60% increase, respectively, in the prevalence of coronary stenosis ≥50% (all P<0.05). Similarly, sTNFαR I and II in HIV+ participants were associated with an increase in prevalence of coronary stenosis ≥70% (P<0.05). Higher levels of interleukin-6, sTNFαR I, and sTNFαR II were also associated with greater coronary artery calcification score in HIV+ men (P<0.01).ConclusionsHigher inflammatory marker levels are associated with greater prevalence of coronary stenosis in HIV+ men. Our findings underscore the need for further study to elucidate the relationships of inflammatory pathways with coronary artery disease in HIV+ individuals

    A Safe Home? A Qualitative Study into the Experiences of Adolescents Growing Up in the Dutch Area Impacted by Earthquakes Induced by Gas Extraction

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    For decades, the Netherlands has experienced minor earthquakes due to gas extraction. This study aims to obtain insight into the experiences of adolescents and the impact of these earthquakes on their well-being and living environment. Focus groups were held with 24 adolescents, and interviews were held with 3 adolescents (N = 27; M = 15 years). Through qualitative analysis, we identified six themes. The adolescents shared experiences of anxiety related to the earthquakes and their consequences and considered these to be a normal part of their life. Anxiety and feelings of endangerment not only related to their own experiences but were also connected to the impact of earthquakes on their social environment, such as the restoration of buildings. Several sources of support (e.g., talking, social cohesion) were mentioned to deal with the negative consequences of the earthquakes. A lack of trust in the government was an additional main theme, with adolescents mentioning several needs, potentially relevant to policymakers in the Netherlands. Growing up in the gas extraction area of Groningen had many consequences on the adolescents in the study, who felt inhibited from expressing feelings of anxiety and fear. To support their needs, interventions at the individual, family, educational, societal, and policy levels are recommended. View Full-Tex

    Racial/ethnic differences in hypertension and hypertension treatment and control in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

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    BACKGROUND: Most previous studies investigating the association between ethnicity and hypertension focused on differences between African Americans and whites and did not include other racial/ethnic groups such as Chinese or Hispanics. METHODS: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based study of 6814 adults without clinical cardiovascular disease, to examine the association between ethnicity and hypertension and hypertension treatment among white, African American, Chinese, and Hispanic ethnic groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <90 mm Hg or self-reported treatment for hypertension, was significantly higher in African Americans compared to whites (60% v 38%; P < .0001), whereas prevalence in Hispanic (42%) and Chinese participants (39%) did not differ significantly from that in whites. After adjustment for age, body mass index, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and smoking, African American (odds ratio [OR] 2.21; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.91-2.56) and Chinese (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.07-1.56) ethnicity were significantly associated with hypertension compared to whites. Among hypertensive MESA participants, the percentage of treated but uncontrolled hypertension in whites (24%) was significantly lower than in African Americans (35%, P < .0001), Chinese (33%, P = .003), and Hispanics (32%, P = .0005), but only African-American race/ethnicity remained significantly associated with treated but uncontrolled hypertension after controlling for socioeconomic factors (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.71). Diuretic use was lowest in the Chinese (22%) and Hispanic participants (32%) and was significantly lower in these groups compared with white participants (47%; P < .0001 for both comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: Programs to improve hypertension treatment and control should focus on a better understanding of differences in the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension control among minority groups in the United States, especially African Americans, compared with whites, and on techniques to prevent hypertension and improve control in high-risk groups.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/57748/1/Racial Ethnic Differences in Hypertension and Hypertension Treatment and Control in the Multi Ethnic of Atherosclerosis.pd