3,625 research outputs found

    A combined approach to data mining of textual and structured data to identify cancer-related targets

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    BACKGROUND: We present an effective, rapid, systematic data mining approach for identifying genes or proteins related to a particular interest. A selected combination of programs exploring PubMed abstracts, universal gene/protein databases (UniProt, InterPro, NCBI Entrez), and state-of-the-art pathway knowledge bases (LSGraph and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) was assembled to distinguish enzymes with hydrolytic activities that are expressed in the extracellular space of cancer cells. Proteins were identified with respect to six types of cancer occurring in the prostate, breast, lung, colon, ovary, and pancreas. RESULTS: The data mining method identified previously undetected targets. Our combined strategy applied to each cancer type identified a minimum of 375 proteins expressed within the extracellular space and/or attached to the plasma membrane. The method led to the recognition of human cancer-related hydrolases (on average, ~35 per cancer type), among which were prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate-specific antigen, and sulfatase 1. CONCLUSION: The combined data mining of several databases overcame many of the limitations of querying a single database and enabled the facile identification of gene products. In the case of cancer-related targets, it produced a list of putative extracellular, hydrolytic enzymes that merit additional study as candidates for cancer radioimaging and radiotherapy. The proposed data mining strategy is of a general nature and can be applied to other biological databases for understanding biological functions and diseases

    Penetrating particle ANalyzer (PAN)

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    PAN is a scientific instrument suitable for deep space and interplanetary missions. It can precisely measure and monitor the flux, composition, and direction of highly penetrating particles (>> \sim100 MeV/nucleon) in deep space, over at least one full solar cycle (~11 years). The science program of PAN is multi- and cross-disciplinary, covering cosmic ray physics, solar physics, space weather and space travel. PAN will fill an observation gap of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV region, and provide precise information of the spectrum, composition and emission time of energetic particle originated from the Sun. The precise measurement and monitoring of the energetic particles is also a unique contribution to space weather studies. PAN will map the flux and composition of penetrating particles, which cannot be shielded effectively, precisely and continuously, providing valuable input for the assessment of the related health risk, and for the development of an adequate mitigation strategy. PAN has the potential to become a standard on-board instrument for deep space human travel. PAN is based on the proven detection principle of a magnetic spectrometer, but with novel layout and detection concept. It will adopt advanced particle detection technologies and industrial processes optimized for deep space application. The device will require limited mass (~20 kg) and power (~20 W) budget. Dipole magnet sectors built from high field permanent magnet Halbach arrays, instrumented in a modular fashion with high resolution silicon strip detectors, allow to reach an energy resolution better than 10\% for nuclei from H to Fe at 1 GeV/n

    Design, Implementation and First Measurements with the Medipix Neutron Camera in CMS

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    The Medipix detector is the first device dedicated to measuring mixed-field radiation in the CMS cavern and able to distinguish between different particle types. Medipix2-MXR chips bump bonded to silicon sensors with various neutron conversion layers developed by the IEAP CTU in Prague were successfully installed for the 2008 LHC start-up in the CMS experimental and services caverns to measure the flux of various particle types, in particular neutrons. They have operated almost continuously during the 2010 run period, and the results shown here are from the proton run between the beginning of July and the end of October 2010. Clear signals are seen and different particle types have been observed during regular LHC luminosity running, and an agreement in the measured flux rate is found with the simulations. These initial results are promising, and indicate that these devices have the potential for further and future LHC and high energy physics applications as radiation monitoring devices for mixed field environments, including neutron flux monitoring. Further extensions are foreseen in the near future to increase the performance of the detector and its coverage for monitoring in CMS.Comment: 15 pages, 16 figures, submitted to JINS

    Fluids of hard ellipsoids: Phase diagram including a nematic instability from Percus-Yevick theory

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    An important aspect of molecular fluids is the relation between orientation and translation parts of the two-particle correlations. Especially the detailed knowledge of the influence of orientation correlations is needed to explain and calculate in detail the occurrence of a nematic phase. The simplest model system which shows both orientation and translation correlations is a system of hard ellipsoids. We investigate an isotropic fluid formed of hard ellipsoids with Percus-Yevick theory. Solving the Percus-Yevick equations self-consistently in the high density regime gives a clear criterion for a nematic instability. We calculate in detail the equilibrium phase diagram for a fluid of hard ellipsoids of revolution. Our results compare well with Monte Carlo Simulations and density functional theory.Comment: 7 pages including 4 figure

    Hole Hopping Across a Protein-Protein Interface.

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    We have investigated photoinduced hole hopping in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin mutant Re126WWCuI, where two adjacent tryptophan residues (W124 and W122) are inserted between the CuI center and a Re photosensitizer coordinated to a H126 imidazole (Re = ReI(H126)(CO)3(dmp)+, dmp = 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline). Optical excitation of this mutant in aqueous media (//(CuII)' back ET that occurs over 12 Å, in contrast to the 23 Å, 120 us step in Re126WWCuI. Importantly, dimerization makes Re126FWCuI photoreactive and, in the case of {Re126WWCuI}2, channels the photoproduced "hole" to the molecule that was not initially photoexcited, thereby shortening the lifetime of ReI(H126)(CO)3(dmp•-)//CuII. Whereas two adjacent W124 and W122 indoles dramatically enhance CuI->*Re intramolecular multistep ET, the tryptophan quadruplex in {Re126WWCuI}2 does not accelerate intermolecular electron transport; instead, it acts as a hole storage and crossover unit between inter- and intramolecular ET pathways. Irradiation of {Re126WWCuII}2 or {Re126FWCuII}2 also triggers intermolecular *Re////(W122•+)' intermolecular charge recombination. Our findings shed light on the factors that control interfacial hole/electron hopping in protein complexes and on the role of aromatic amino acids in accelerating long-range electron transport

    Constraints on Low-Mass WIMP Interactions on 19F from PICASSO

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    Recent results from the PICASSO dark matter search experiment at SNOLAB are reported. These results were obtained using a subset of 10 detectors with a total target mass of 0.72 kg of 19F and an exposure of 114 kgd. The low backgrounds in PICASSO allow recoil energy thresholds as low as 1.7 keV to be obtained which results in an increased sensitivity to interactions from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with masses below 10 GeV/c^2. No dark matter signal was found. Best exclusion limits in the spin dependent sector were obtained for WIMP masses of 20 GeV/c^2 with a cross section on protons of sigma_p^SD = 0.032 pb (90% C.L.). In the spin independent sector close to the low mass region of 7 GeV/c2 favoured by CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, cross sections larger than sigma_p^SI = 1.41x10^-4 pb (90% C.L.) are excluded.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figures, to be published in Phys. Lett.