212 research outputs found

    MEROPS: the database of proteolytic enzymes, their substrates and inhibitors

    Get PDF
    Peptidases, their substrates and inhibitors are of great relevance to biology, medicine and biotechnology. The MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) aims to fulfil the need for an integrated source of information about these. The database has hierarchical classifications in which homologous sets of peptidases and protein inhibitors are grouped into protein species, which are grouped into families, which are in turn grouped into clans. The database has been expanded to include proteolytic enzymes other than peptidases. Special identifiers for peptidases from a variety of model organisms have been established so that orthologues can be detected in other species. A table of predicted active-site residue and metal ligand positions and the residue ranges of the peptidase domains in orthologues has been added to each peptidase summary. New displays of tertiary structures, which can be rotated or have the surfaces displayed, have been added to the structure pages. New indexes for gene names and peptidase substrates have been made available. Among the enhancements to existing features are the inclusion of small-molecule inhibitors in the tables of peptidase–inhibitor interactions, a table of known cleavage sites for each protein substrate, and tables showing the substrate-binding preferences of peptidases derived from combinatorial peptide substrate libraries

    Design, formulation and sensory evaluation of a polyphenol-rich food placebo: an example of aronia juice for food intervention studies

    Get PDF
    Products suitable for use as controls in food interventions designed to demonstrate the role of minor components are largely lacking. In the present study, we aimed to develop a formulation to be used as a placebo in a clinical trial designed to assess the effects of aronia juice polyphenols on platelet function. Three formulations with the same nutrient composition as aronia juice were prepared by mixing various nutrients, artificial colours and flavours with water. The similarity of formulations to aronia juice in terms of taste, colour, smell and texture was assessed by six food panellists. The final placebo was tested for its impact on platelet function, biochemical and anthropometric parameters in a 4-week long study. No significant changes in platelet function, or in several cardiovascular and safety markers were recorded. Formulation suitable for use as a placebo for dietary intervention studies using aronia juice has been developed and demonstrated to be well tolerated in humans

    Benefícios do ômega 3 na prevenção de doença cardiovascular: Revisão integrativa de literatura

    Get PDF
    Introduction: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), a fat found in plant foods, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both found in fish, have been considered relevant substances for the maintenance of health, so that supplementation is being considered relevant for the reduction of cardiovascular risks. Objective: To identify and analyze the scientific evidence available in the literature on the contribution of omega 3 in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Integrative literature review, with deference to materials published in the Scielo and PubMed databases, which considered as inclusion criteria articles published in the last 5 years, available in full, in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, which addressed the proposed theme; the exclusion criteria were editorials, letters to the editor, review studies, theses, dissertations, and duplicate articles that did not correspond to the theme. Results: Based on the aforementioned scientific evidence, the body's omega-3 indices are relevant to identify possible cardiovascular risk, so it can therefore be used as an objective for treatment when there is a possible risk for these manifestations. This risk factor can be modified by taking EPA and DHA. The standard 1 g/day dose of EPA and DHA recommended by cardiac societies is, however, probably far from ideal for everyone, as not only this standard dose but also diet, individual genetic history, body mass index, calorie intake and disposal, and other factors all together probably determine a person's level of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, it is suggested that the omega-3 index acts not only as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but that other contexts allied to the patient's lifestyle should be considered. Conclusion: Diet or supplementation of these nutrients may result in cardiovascular and other types of benefits to society as a whole

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation versus placebo on vascular health, glycaemic control, and metabolic parameters in people with type 1 diabetes: a randomised controlled preliminary trial

    Get PDF
    Background: The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA), and the potential impact of n-3PUFA supplementation, in the treatment and management of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear and controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the efficacy of daily high-dose-bolus n-3PUFA supplementation on vascular health, glycaemic control, and metabolic parameters in subjects with T1D. Methods: Twenty-seven adults with T1D were recruited to a 6-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects received either 3.3 g/day of encapsulated n-3PUFA or encapsulated 3.0 g/day corn oil placebo (PLA) for 6-months, with follow-up at 9-months after 3-month washout. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was determined via gas chromatography. Endpoints included inflammation-associated endothelial biomarkers (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], E-selectin, P-selectin, pentraxin-3, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), and their mediator tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα] analysed via immunoassay, vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness [CIMT]) and function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation [FMD]) determined via ultrasound technique, blood pressure, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and postprandial metabolism. Results: Twenty subjects completed the trial in full. In the n-3PUFA group, the mean ± SD baseline n-3PUFA index of 4.93 ± 0.94% increased to 7.67 ± 1.86% (P  0.05). Conclusions: This study indicates that daily high-dose-bolus of n-3PUFA supplementation for 6-months does not improve vascular health, glucose homeostasis, or metabolic parameters in subjects with T1D. The findings from this preliminary RCT do not support the use of therapeutic n-3PUFA supplementation in the treatment and management of T1D and its associated complications. Trial Registration ISRCTN, ISRCTN40811115. Registered 27 June 2017, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN40811115

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids favourably modulate cardiometabolic biomarkers in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) may favourably modify cardiometabolic biomarkers in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Previous meta-analyses are limited by insufficient sample sizes and omission of meta-regression techniques, and a large number of RCTs have subsequently been published since the last comprehensive meta-analysis. Updated information regarding the impact of dosage, duration or an interaction between these two factors is therefore warranted. The objective was to comprehensively assess the effect of n-3PUFAs supplementation on cardiometabolic biomarkers including lipid profiles, inflammatory parameters, blood pressure, and indices of glycaemic control, in people with T2DM, and identify whether treatment dosage, duration or an interaction thereof modify these effects. METHODS: Databases including PubMed and MEDLINE were searched until 13th July 2017 for RCTs investigating the effect of n-3PUFAs supplementation on lipid profiles, inflammatory parameters, blood pressure, and indices of glycaemic control. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis and presented as standardised mean difference (Hedges g) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Meta-regression analysis was performed to investigate the effects of duration of supplementation and total dosage of n-3PUFAs as moderator variables where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 45 RCTs were identified, involving 2674 people with T2DM. n-3PUFAs supplementation was associated with significant reductions in LDL [ES: - 0.10, (95% CI - 0.17, - 0.03); p = 0.007], VLDL (ES: - 0.26 (- 0.51, - 0.01); p = 0.044], triglycerides (ES: - 0.39 (- 0.55, - 0.24; p ≤ 0.001] and HbA1c (ES: - 0.27 (- 0.48, - 0.06); p = 0.010]. Moreover, n-3PUFAs supplementation was associated with reduction in plasma levels of TNF-α [ES: - 0.59 (- 1.17, - 0.01); p = 0.045] and IL-6 (ES: - 1.67 (- 3.14, - 0.20); p = 0.026]. All other lipid markers, indices of glycaemic control, inflammatory parameters, and blood pressure remained unchanged (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: n-3PUFAs supplementation produces favourable hypolipidemic effects, a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and improvement in glycaemia. Neither duration nor dosage appear to explain the observed heterogeneity in response to n-3PUFAs. Trial registration This trial was registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk as CRD42016050802

    Two-pronged attack: dual inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum M1 and M17 metalloaminopeptidases by a novel series of hydroxamic acid-based inhibitors

    Get PDF
    Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, have developed resistance to most of our current antimalarial therapies, including artemisinin combination therapies which are widely described as our last line of defense. Antimalarial agents with a novel mode of action are urgently required. Two Plasmodium falciparum aminopeptidases, PfA-M1 and PfA-M17, play crucial roles in the erythrocytic stage of infection and have been validated as potential antimalarial targets. Using compound-bound crystal structures of both enzymes, we have used a structure-guided approach to develop a novel series of inhibitors capable of potent inhibition of both PfA-M1 and PfA-M17 activity and parasite growth in culture. Herein we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of hydroxamic acid-based inhibitors and demonstrate the compounds to be exciting new leads for the development of novel antimalarial therapeutics

    Studies of new Higgs boson interactions through nonresonant HH production in the b¯bγγ fnal state in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Get PDF
    A search for nonresonant Higgs boson pair production in the b ¯bγγ fnal state is performed using 140 fb−1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. This analysis supersedes and expands upon the previous nonresonant ATLAS results in this fnal state based on the same data sample. The analysis strategy is optimised to probe anomalous values not only of the Higgs (H) boson self-coupling modifer κλ but also of the quartic HHV V (V = W, Z) coupling modifer κ2V . No signifcant excess above the expected background from Standard Model processes is observed. An observed upper limit µHH < 4.0 is set at 95% confdence level on the Higgs boson pair production cross-section normalised to its Standard Model prediction. The 95% confdence intervals for the coupling modifers are −1.4 < κλ < 6.9 and −0.5 < κ2V < 2.7, assuming all other Higgs boson couplings except the one under study are fxed to the Standard Model predictions. The results are interpreted in the Standard Model efective feld theory and Higgs efective feld theory frameworks in terms of constraints on the couplings of anomalous Higgs boson (self-)interactions

    Comparison of inclusive and photon-tagged jet suppression in 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collisions with ATLAS