68 research outputs found

    Prevalence of high affinity naturally occurring IgG2 antibodies against human chorionic gonadotropin and its subunits in patients with ovarian cyst

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    Naturally occurring antibodies to tumour antigens are gaining interest as clinically important cancer biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis and for the development of anti-cancer therapeutics. The glycoprotein αβ heterodimer hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its β subunit (hCGβ) are produced by various cancers, and their increased serum levels correlate with poor prognosis. We have previously reported that patients with benign ovarian cysts, but not the malignant tumours, were characterized by augmented serum levels of naturally-occurring IgG antibodies to hCG and hCGβ. Here we further characterise these antibodies in patients with ovarian cysts. IgG and IgM antibody binding to whole hCG, hCGβ, hCGα, hCGβ C-terminal peptide (hCGβCTP), and the hCGβ core fragment (hCGβCF) were measured in the sera from 36 patients with ovarian cysts and 12 healthy non-pregnant women using a standard ELISA. IgG subclass usage and affinity was also determined together with cross-binding to whole hCG and its subunits of four selected commercial monoclonal antibodies generated against ovarian cyst mucins. Our results showed that 91.7% of the sera tested contained elevated IgG, but not IgM antibodies to one or several antigens, with an overwhelming prevalence of high affinity IgG2 indicating their binding to carbohydrate epitopes and possibly ovarian cyst mucins. Anti-mucin commercial antibody ab212418 (Abcam) produced against Gal1-3GalNAc, exhibited strong cross-binding to hCGαβ, hCGβ, hCGα and hCGβCTP. The protective anti-cancer potential of these antibodies will be further investigated and could lead to the development of novel treatment strategies for ovarian cancer

    The role of CD180 in hematological malignancies and inflammatory disorders.

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    Toll-like receptors play a significant role in the innate immune system and are also involved in the pathophysiology of many different diseases. Over the past 35 years, there have been a growing number of publications exploring the role of the orphan toll-like receptor, CD180. We therefore set out to provide a narrative review of the current evidence surrounding CD180 in both health and disease. We first explore the evidence surrounding the role of CD180 in physiology including its expression, function and signaling in antigen presenting cells (APCs) (dendritic cells, monocytes, and B cells). We particularly focus on the role of CD180 as a modulator of other TLRs including TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9. We then discuss the role of CD180 in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in hematological malignancies of B cell origin, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Based on this evidence we produce a current model for CD180 in disease and explore the potential role for CD180 as both a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target. Throughout, we highlight specific areas of research which should be addressed to further the understanding of CD180 biology and the translational potential of research into CD180 in various diseases

    Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia kill via a perforin-mediated pathway

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    Background and Objectives: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a clonal expansion of CD5+B cells that accumulate due to their uncontrolled growth and resistance to apoptosis. We have previously shown that up to 50% of blood CD4+ T cells in BCLL patients have a cytotoxicity-related CD28-CD57+ phenotype and high content of both granzyme B and perforin (PF). In this study we investigate the cytotoxic potential of these cells against autologous B-CLL cells. Design and Methods: Blood CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were positively isolated from B-CLL patients and cultured under a range of conditions with autologous purified B-CLL cells and with bispecific [anti-CD3 x anti-CD19] antibodies. Apoptosis of labeled B-CLL cells was assessed using the change of mitochondrial membrane potential with the fluorescent dye DiOC6 and confirmed by annexin V binding. Results: There was time- and dose-dependent killing of B-CLL cells by both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and this ranged from 6.6 - 68.0% for CD4+ cells and 6.4 - 57.8% for CD8+ cells. Almost complete inhibition by concanamycin A suggests that CD4+ T cells like CD8+ T cells induced apoptosis through a perforin-mediated pathway, but not via Fas/FasL (as indicated by lack of blocking with brefeldin A), tumor necrosis factor or TRAIL. Interpretation and Conclusions: This study shows that blood CD4+PF+ T cells enriched in B-CLL patients, are able to kill autologous B-CLL cells ex vivo, through bispecific antibodies via a perforin mediated mechanism

    Investigation of factors influencing the immunogenicity of hCG as a potential cancer vaccine

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    Human hCG and its β‐subunit (hCGβ) are tumour autocrine growth factors whose presence in the serum of cancer patients has been linked to poorer prognosis. Previous studies have shown that vaccines, which target these molecules and/or the 37 amino acid C‐terminal hCGβ peptide (hCGβCTP), induce antibody responses in a majority of human recipients. Here we explored whether the immunogenicity of vaccines containing an hCGβ mutant (hCGβR68E, designed to eliminate cross‐reactivity with luteinizing hormone) or hCGβCTP could be enhanced by coupling the immunogen to different carriers (KLH or Hsp70) using different cross‐linkers (EDC or GAD) and formulated with different adjuvants (RIBI or Montanide ISA720). While there was little to choose between KLH and Hsp70 as carriers, their influence on the effectiveness of a vaccine containing the BAChCGβR68E mutant was less marked, presumably because being a foreign species, this mutant protein itself might provide T‐helper epitopes. The mutant provided a significantly better vaccine than the hCGβCTP peptide irrespective of the carrier used, how it was cross‐linked to the carrier or which adjuvant was used when hCG was the target. Nonetheless, for use in humans where hCG is a tolerated self‐protein, the need for a carrier is of fundamental importance. Highest antibody titres were obtained by linking the BAChCGβR68E to Hsp70 as a carrier by GAD and using RIBI as the adjuvant, which also resulted in antibodies with significantly higher affinity than those elicited by hCGβCTP peptide vaccine. This makes this mutant vaccine a promising candidate for therapeutic studies in hCGβ‐positive cancer patients