557 research outputs found

    Целеориентированный подход к оценке качества научных публикаций читателем

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    Экспоненциальный рост объема научной информации актуализирует необходимость поиска критериев оценки ее качества. Большинство современных наукометрических инструментов носят количественный характер, а немногочисленные качественные индикаторы пока не находят широкой популярности среди ученых. В данной работе авторы стремятся выявить основания добротности научной публикации и предложить подход к оценке ее качества, который мог бы быть использован читателем в процессе поиска интересующей научной информации. Для достижения поставленной цели последовательно решаются следующие задачи: анализируется современный контекст проведения оценки научного контента; систематизируются условия проникновения некачественного знания в науку по социальным акторам научной коммуникации; определяется единое основание оценки общего качества научной публикации; строится модель производства научного знания в свете вопроса об ответственности генерирующих его сторон; на основе выделенных маркеров разрабатывается алгоритм для отбора научной информации читателем. Этот алгоритм может быть использован не только исследователями, но и экспертами научных журналов в процессе рецензирования поступающих рукописей

    Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 Improves Dermal Wound Healing in Genetically Diabetic Mice

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    Oxidative stress is widely recognized as an important factor in the delayed wound healing in diabetes. However, the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in this process is unknown. It was assumed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are involved in many wound-healing processes in both diabetic humans and animals. We have applied the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant 10-(6′-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) to explore the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the wound healing of genetically diabetic mice. Healing of full-thickness excisional dermal wounds in diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db−/db− mice was significantly enhanced after long-term (12 weeks) administration of SkQ1. SkQ1 accelerated wound closure and stimulated epithelization, granulation tissue formation, and vascularization. On the 7th day after wounding, SkQ1 treatment increased the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells (myofibroblasts), reduced the number of neutrophils, and increased macrophage infiltration. SkQ1 lowered lipid peroxidation level but did not change the level of the circulatory IL-6 and TNF. SkQ1 pretreatment also stimulated cell migration in a scratch-wound assay in vitro under hyperglycemic condition. Thus, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant normalized both inflammatory and regenerative phases of wound healing in diabetic mice. Our results pointed to nearly all the major steps of wound healing as the target of excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in type II diabetes

    Association of Polymorphisms of Serotonin Transporter (5HTTLPR) and 5-HT2C Receptor Genes with Criminal Behavior in Russian Criminal Offenders

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    Background: Human aggression is a heterogeneous behavior with biological, psychological, and social backgrounds. As the biological mechanisms that regulate aggression are components of both reward-seeking and adversity-fleeing behavior, these phenomena are difficult to disentangle into separate neurochemical processes. Nevertheless, evidence exists linking some forms of ag

    Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci

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    Objective: A recent large-scale study in multiple sclerosis (MS) using the ImmunoChip platform reported on 11 loci that showed suggestive genetic association with MS. Additional data in sufficiently sized and independent data sets are needed to assess whether these loci represent genuine MS risk factors. Methods: The lead SNPs of all 11 loci were genotyped in 10 796 MS cases and 10 793 controls from Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Russia, that were independent from the previously reported cohorts. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression based on an additive model. Summary effect size estimates were calculated using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Seven of the 11 tested SNPs showed significant association with MS susceptibility in the 21 589 individuals analysed here. Meta-analysis across our and previously published MS case-control data (total sample size n=101 683) revealed novel genome-wide significant association with MS susceptibility (p<5×10−8) for all seven variants. This included SNPs in or near LOC100506457 (rs1534422, p=4.03×10−12), CD28 (rs6435203, p=1.35×10−9), LPP (rs4686953, p=3.35×10−8), ETS1 (rs3809006, p=7.74×10−9), DLEU1 (rs806349, p=8.14×10−12), LPIN3 (rs6072343, p=7.16×10−12) and IFNGR2 (rs9808753, p=4.40×10−10). Cis expression quantitative locus effects were observed in silico for rs6435203 on CD28 and for rs9808753 on several immunologically relevant genes in the IFNGR2 locus. Conclusions: This study adds seven loci to the list of genuine MS genetic risk factors and further extends the list of established loci shared across autoimmune diseases

    Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci

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    Objective: A recent large-scale study in multiple sclerosis (MS) using the ImmunoChip platform reported on 11 loci that showed suggestive genetic association with MS. Additional data in sufficiently sized and independent data sets are needed to assess whether these loci represent genuine MS risk factors. Methods: The lead SNPs of all 11 loci were genotyped in 10 796 MS cases and 10 793 controls from Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Russia, that were independent from the previously reported cohorts. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression based on an additive model. Summary effect size estimates were calculated using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Seven of the 11 tested SNPs showed significant association with MS susceptibility in the 21 589 individuals analysed here. Meta-analysis across our and previously published MS case-control data (total sample size n=101 683) revealed novel genome-wide significant association with MS susceptibility (p<5×10−8) for all seven variants. This included SNPs in or near LOC100506457 (rs1534422, p=4.03×10−12), CD28 (rs6435203, p=1.35×10−9), LPP (rs4686953, p=3.35×10−8), ETS1 (rs3809006, p=7.74×10−9), DLEU1 (rs806349, p=8.14×10−12), LPIN3 (rs6072343, p=7.16×10−12) and IFNGR2 (rs9808753, p=4.40×10−10). Cis expression quantitative locus effects were observed in silico for rs6435203 on CD28 and for rs9808753 on several immunologically relevant genes in the IFNGR2 locus. Conclusions: This study adds seven loci to the list of genuine MS genetic risk factors and further extends the list of established loci shared across autoimmune diseases

    The efficacy of the combination of eribulin and trastuzumab in advanced HER2-positive breast cancer: the results of Russian observational study

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    The article presents the experience of 19 Russian medical institutions on the use of eribulin in combination with trastuzumab in various treatment lines of metastatic HER2+ breast cancer in routine clinical practice. Aim. The main objective of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of eribulin and trastuzumab combo in HER2+ breast cancer patients pretreated with anthracyclines and taxanes. The analysis included 60 patients who received at least 2 cycles of eribulin in combination with trastuzumab. 2 patients (3.3%) received treatment as the 1st line, as the 2nd 14 (23.3%), as the 3rd 16 (26.7%), and as the 4th and more 28 (46.7%). Materials and methods. Complete response was achieved in 2 (3.3%) patients, partial response in 9 (15%), stable disease in 33 (55%), stabilization for more than 6 months in 11 (18.3%), disease progression was detected in 16 (26.7%) patients. The objective response rate was 18.3% in the whole group, the clinical benefit rate 36.7%. Results. The objective response rate in the group of the luminal subtype (ER/PR+HER2+) was 26.9%, in HER2-overexpressed subtype (ER-PR-HER2+) 8.8% and 64.7%, respectively, disease progression was recorded 2.3 times more often 35.3% versus 15.5% in the luminal subtype group. The median progression-free survival in patients with HER2+ breast cancer was 4.95 months (95% confidence interval CI 3.048.29 months), in luminal subtype 6.38 months (95% CI 3.338.54 months), in non-luminal 4.44 months (95% CI 2.47.96 months); p=0.306. The treatment was well tolerated, the spectrum of adverse events corresponded to the eribulin toxicity profile. Conclusions. The uniqueness of this study lies in the fact that on a large clinical material from the standpoint of real clinical practice, a very promising treatment regimen that is not used routinely in a number of countries has been studied, its effectiveness and satisfactory tolerance have been confirmed
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