109 research outputs found

    The Fe and Zn isotope composition of deep mantle source regions: Insights from Baffin Island picrites

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    Young (61 Ma) unaltered picrites from Baffin Island, northwest Canada, possess some of the highest 3He/4He (up to 50 Ra) seen on Earth, and provide a unique opportunity to study primordial mantle that has escaped subsequent chemical modification. These high-degree partial melts also record anomalously high 182W/184W ratios, but their Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositons (including 142Nd) are indistinguishable from those of North Atlantic mid-ocean ridge basalts. New high precision Fe and Zn stable isotope analyses of Baffin Island picrites show limited variability with δ56Fe ranging from −0.03‰ to 0.13‰ and δ66Zn varying from 0.18‰ to 0.28‰. However, a clear inflection is seen in both sets of isotope data around the composition of the parental melt (MgO = 21 wt %; δ56Fe = 0.08 ± 0.04‰; and δ66Zn = 0.24 ± 0.03‰), with two diverging trends interpreted to reflect the crystallisation of olivine and spinel in low-MgO samples and the accumulation of olivine at higher MgO. Olivine mineral separates are significantly isotopically lighter than their corresponding whole rocks (δ56Fe ≥ −0.62‰ and δ66Zn ≥ −0.22‰), with analyses of individual olivine phenocrysts having extremely variable Fe isotope compositions (δ56Fe = −0.01‰ to −0.80‰). By carrying out modelling in three-isotope space, we show that the very negative Fe isotope compositions of olivine phenocryst are the result of kinetic isotope fractionation from disequilibrium diffusional processes. An excellent correlation is observed between δ56Fe and δ66Zn, demonstrating that Zn isotopes are fractionated by the same processes as Fe in simple systems dominated by magmatic olivine. The incompatible behaviour of Cu during magmatic evolution is consistent with the sulfide-undersaturated nature of these melts. Consequently Zn behaves as a purely lithophile element, and estimates of the bulk Earth Zn isotope composition based on Baffin Island should therefore be robust. The ancient undegassed lower mantle sampled at Baffin Island possesses a δ56Fe value that is within error of previous estimates of bulk mantle δ56Fe, however, our estimate of the Baffin mantle δ66Zn (0.20 ± 0.03‰) is significantly lower than some previous estimates. Comparison of our new data with those for Archean and Proterozoic komatiites is consistent with the Fe and Zn isotope composition of the mantle remaining constant from at least 3 Ga to the present day. By focusing on large-degree partial melts (e.g. komatiites and picrites) we are potenitally biasing our record to samples that will inevitably have interacted with, entrained and melted the ambient shallow mantle during ascent. For a major element such as Fe, that will continuosly participate in melting as it rises through the mantle, the final isotopic compositon of the magama will be a weighted average of the complete melting column. Thus it is unsuprising that minimal Fe isotope variation are seen between localities. In contrast, the unique geochemical signatures (e.g. He and W) displayed by the Baffin Island picrites are inferred to solely originate from the lowermost mantle and will be continuously diluted upon magma ascent

    Zinc isotope evidence for sulfate-rich fluid transfer across subduction zones

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    Subduction zones modulate the chemical evolution of the Earth?s mantle. Water and volatile elements in the slab are released as fluids into the mantle wedge and this process is widely considered to result in the oxidation of the sub-arc mantle. However, the chemical composition and speciation of these fluids, which is critical for the mobility of economically important elements, remain poorly constrained. Sulfur has the potential to act both as oxidizing agent and transport medium. Here we use zinc stable isotopes ( \ensuremathδ 66 Zn) in subducted Alpine serpentinites to decipher the chemical properties of slab- derived fluids. We show that the progressive decrease in \ensuremathδ 66Zn with metamorphic grade is correlated with a decrease in sulfur content. As existing theoretical work predicts that Zn-SO42- complexes preferentially incorporate heavy \ensuremathδ 66Zn, our results provide strong evidence for the release of oxidized, sulfate-rich, slab serpentinite-derived fluids to the mantle wedge.This work was supported by an ERC Starting Grant (HabitablePlanet; 306655) and a NERC Deep Volatiles Consortium Grant (NE/M0003/1) awarded to H.W. H.W. and P.B. also acknowledge salary support from a NERC Advanced Fellowship (NE/F014295/2) and ERC Starting Grant (279828, MASE), respectivel

    Tracing intensive fish and meat consumption using Zn isotope ratios: evidence from a historical Breton population (Rennes, France)

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    International audienceHere we report Sr and Zn isotope ratios of teeth of medieval to early modern Breton people a population whose diet is known from historical, archeological and collagen isotope data. Most of the population, buried in the Dominican convent of Rennes, France, consists of parliamentary nobles, wealthy commoners and ecclesiastics, who had a diet rich in animal products. Our aim is to assess how the Zn isotope ratios of their teeth compare to those of other French historical populations previously studied, which were characterized by cereal-based diets, and those of modern French individuals, who daily eat animal products. We describe a clear offset (∼0.35‰) between local and non-local human individuals in Zn isotope ratios. The δ 66 Zn tooth values of local individuals overlap that of modern French people, and are lower than those of local carnivores. Non-local δ 66 Zn values are similar to those of historical individuals analyzed previously. We conclude the lower Zn isotope ratios of local humans relative to the associated fauna can be explained by the consumption of carnivorous fish and pork, in agreement with historical, zooarchaeological and collagen (C, N, S) isotope data. Zn isotopes could therefore be a tracer of fish and/or substantial meat consumption in ancient populations

    Iron and zinc stable isotope evidence for open-system high-pressure dehydration of antigorite serpentinite in subduction zones

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    Subducted serpentinites have the potential to control the exchange of volatile and redox sensitive elements (e.g., Fe, S, C, N) between the slab, the mantle wedge and the deep mantle. Here we examine the mobility of iron and zinc in serpentinite-derived fluids by using their stable isotopes (δ56Fe and δ66Zn) in high-pressure subducted meta-serpentinites from the Cerro del Almirez massif (Spain). This massif preserves a metamorphic front between antigorite (Atg-serpentinite) and antigorite-olivine-orthopyroxene (transitional lithologies) -bearing serpentinites, and chlorite-bearing harzburgite (Chl-harzburgite), displaying granofels, spinifex and fine-grained recrystallized textures. Those rocks were formed at eclogite facies conditions (1.6�1.9 GPa and 680�710 °C). The mean δ56Fe of all the Cerro del Almirez meta- serpentinites (+0.05 ± 0.01 �) is identical within an error to that of primitive mantle (+0.03 ± 0.03 �). A positive correlation between δ56Fe and indices of peridotite protolith fertility (e.g., Al2O3/SiO2) suggests that the δ56Fe values of Cerro del Almirez samples predominantly reflect protolith compositional variations, likely produced by prior episodes of melt extraction. In contrast, the Zn concentrations (Zn = 34�67 ppm) and isotope signatures (δ66Zn = +0.18 � +0.55 �) of the Cerro del Almirez samples show a broad range of values, distinct to those of the primitive mantle (Zn = 54 ppm; δ66Zn = +0.16 ± 0.06 �). The Atg- serpentinites (Zn = 34�46 ppm; δ66Zn = +0.23 ± 0.06 �) display similar Zn and δ66Zn values to those of slab serpentinites from other high-pressure meta-ophiolites. Both Zn and δ66Zn increase in transitional lithologies (Zn = 45�67 ppm; δ66Zn = +0.30 ± 0.06 �) and Chl-harzburgites with granofels (Zn = 38� 59 ppm; δ66Zn = +0.33 ± 0.04 �) or spinifex (Zn = 48�66 ppm; δ66Zn = +0.43 ± 0.09 �) textures. Importantly, Cerro del Almirez transitional lithologies and Chl-harzburgites display abnormally high Zn relative to abyssal peridotites and serpentinites (29�45 ppm) and a positive correlation exists between Zn and δ66Zn. This correlation is interpreted to reflect the mobilization of Zn by subduction zone fluids at high pressures and temperatures coupled with significant Zn stable isotope fractionation. An increase in Zn and δ66Zn from Atg-serpentinite to Chl-harzburgite is associated with an increase in U/Yb, Sr/Y, Ba/Ce and Rb/Ce, suggesting that both Zn and δ66Zn record the interaction of the transitional lithologies and the Chl- harzburgites with fluids that had equilibrated with metasedimentary rocks. Quantitative models show that metasediment derived fluids can have isotopically heavy Zn as a consequence of sediment carbonate dissolution and subsequent Zn complexation with carbonate species in the released fluids (e.g., ZnHCO3(H2O)5+ or ZnCO3(H2O)3). Our models further demonstrate that Zn complexation with reduced carbon species cannot produce fluids with heavy δ66Zn signature and hence explain the δ66Zn variations observed in the Chl-harzburgites. The most straightforward explanation for the heavy δ66Zn of the Cerro del Almirez samples is thus serpentinite dehydration accompanied by the open system infiltration of the massif by oxidized, carbonate-rich sediment-derived fluids released during prograde subduction-related metamorphism

    The behavior of iron and zinc stable isotopes accompanying the subduction of mafic oceanic crust: A case study from Western Alpine ophiolites

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    Arc lavas display elevated Fe3+/ΣFe ratios relative to MORB. One mechanism to explain this is the mobilization and transfer of oxidized or oxidizing components from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. Here we use iron and zinc isotopes, which are fractionated upon complexation by sulfide, chloride, and carbonate ligands, to remark on the chemistry and oxidation state of fluids released during prograde metamorphism of subducted oceanic crust. We present data for metagabbros and metabasalts from the Chenaillet massif, Queyras complex, and the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite (Western European Alps), which have been metamorphosed at typical subduction zone P-T conditions and preserve their prograde metamorphic history. There is no systematic, detectable fractionation of either Fe or Zn isotopes across metamorphic facies, rather the isotope composition of the eclogites overlaps with published data for MORB. The lack of resolvable Fe isotope fractionation with increasing prograde metamorphism likely reflects the mass balance of the system, and in this scenario Fe mobility is not traceable with Fe isotopes. Given that Zn isotopes are fractionated by S-bearing and C-bearing fluids, this suggests that relatively small amounts of Zn are mobilized from the mafic lithologies in within these types of dehydration fluids. Conversely, metagabbros from the Queyras that are in proximity to metasediments display a significant Fe isotope fractionation. The covariation of δ56Fe of these samples with selected fluid mobile elements suggests the infiltration of sediment derived fluids with an isotopically light signature during subduction

    Construction of a dairy microbial genome catalog opens new perspectives for the metagenomic analysis of dairy fermented products

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    Microbial communities of traditional cheeses are complex and insufficiently characterized. The origin, safety and functional role in cheese making of these microbial communities are still not well understood. Metagenomic analysis of these communities by high throughput shotgun sequencing is a promising approach to characterize their genomic and functional profiles. Such analyses, however, critically depend on the availability of appropriate reference genome databases against which the sequencing reads can be aligned. We built a reference genome catalog suitable for short read metagenomic analysis using a low-cost sequencing strategy. We selected 142 bacteria isolated from dairy products belonging to 137 different species and 67 genera, and succeeded to reconstruct the draft genome of 117 of them at a standard or high quality level, including isolates from the genera Kluyvera, Luteococcus and Marinilactibacillus, still missing from public database. To demonstrate the potential of this catalog, we analysed the microbial composition of the surface of two smear cheeses and one blue-veined cheese, and showed that a significant part of the microbiota of these traditional cheeses was composed of microorganisms newly sequenced in our study. Our study provides data, which combined with publicly available genome references, represents the most expansive catalog to date of cheese-associated bacteria. Using this extended dairy catalog, we revealed the presence in traditional cheese of dominant microorganisms not deliberately inoculated, mainly Gram-negative genera such as Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis or Psychrobacter immobilis, that may contribute to the characteristics of cheese produced through traditional methods.https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-110

    Zinc enrichment and isotopic fractionation in a marine habitat of the c. 2.1 Ga Francevillian Group: A signature of zinc utilization by eukaryotes?

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    Constraining the timing of eukaryogenesis and the divergence of eukaryotic clades is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Here, we present trace metal concentration and zinc isotope data for c. 2.1 billion-year-old Francevillian Group pyritized structures, previously described as putative remnants of the first colonial multicellular organisms, and their host black shales. Relative to the host rocks, pyritized structures are strongly enriched in zinc, cobalt and nickel, by at least one order of magnitude, with markedly lighter zinc isotope compositions. A metabolic demand for high concentrations of aqueous zinc, cobalt, and nickel combined with preferential uptake of lighter zinc isotopes may indicate metalloenzyme utilization by eukaryotes in marine habitats c. 2.1 billion years ago. Once confirmed, this would provide a critical calibration point for eukaryogenesis, suggesting that this major evolutionary innovation may have happened contemporaneously with elevated atmospheric oxygen levels during the latter part of the Great Oxidation Event, some 400 million years earlier than is currently widely accepted

    Muscle Dystroglycan Organizes the Postsynapse and Regulates Presynaptic Neurotransmitter Release at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

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    International audienceBACKGROUND: The Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) comprises dystrophin, dystroglycan, sarcoglycan, dystrobrevin and syntrophin subunits. In muscle fibers, it is thought to provide an essential mechanical link between the intracellular cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix and to protect the sarcolemma during muscle contraction. Mutations affecting the DGC cause muscular dystrophies. Most members of the DGC are also concentrated at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), where their deficiency is often associated with NMJ structural defects. Hence, synaptic dysfunction may also intervene in the pathology of dystrophic muscles. Dystroglycan is a central component of the DGC because it establishes a link between the extracellular matrix and Dystrophin. In this study, we focused on the synaptic role of Dystroglycan (Dg) in Drosophila. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that Dg was concentrated postsynaptically at the glutamatergic NMJ, where, like in vertebrates, it controls the concentration of synaptic Laminin and Dystrophin homologues. We also found that synaptic Dg controlled the amount of postsynaptic 4.1 protein Coracle and alpha-Spectrin, as well as the relative subunit composition of glutamate receptors. In addition, both Dystrophin and Coracle were required for normal Dg concentration at the synapse. In electrophysiological recordings, loss of postsynaptic Dg did not affect postsynaptic response, but, surprisingly, led to a decrease in glutamate release from the presynaptic site. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, our study illustrates a conservation of DGC composition and interactions between Drosophila and vertebrates at the synapse, highlights new proteins associated with this complex and suggests an unsuspected trans-synaptic function of Dg

    O império dos mil anos e a arte do "tempo barroco": a águia bicéfala como emblema da Cristandade

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    Retrospective evaluation of whole exome and genome mutation calls in 746 cancer samples

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    Funder: NCI U24CA211006Abstract: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) curated consensus somatic mutation calls using whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), respectively. Here, as part of the ICGC/TCGA Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium, which aggregated whole genome sequencing data from 2,658 cancers across 38 tumour types, we compare WES and WGS side-by-side from 746 TCGA samples, finding that ~80% of mutations overlap in covered exonic regions. We estimate that low variant allele fraction (VAF < 15%) and clonal heterogeneity contribute up to 68% of private WGS mutations and 71% of private WES mutations. We observe that ~30% of private WGS mutations trace to mutations identified by a single variant caller in WES consensus efforts. WGS captures both ~50% more variation in exonic regions and un-observed mutations in loci with variable GC-content. Together, our analysis highlights technological divergences between two reproducible somatic variant detection efforts
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