71 research outputs found

### Congestion games with load-dependent failures: identical resources

We define a new class of games---congestion games with load-dependent failures (CGLFs). In a CGLF each player can choose a subset of a set of available resources in order to try and perform his task. We assume that the resources are identical but that players' benefits from successful completion of their tasks may differ. Each resource is associated with a cost of use and failure probability which are load-dependent. Although CGLFs in general do not have a pure strategy Nash equilibrium, we prove the existence of a pure strategy Nash equilibrium in every CGLF with nondecreasing cost functions. Moreover, we present a polynomial time algorithm for computing such an equilibrium

### Taxation and stability in cooperative games

Cooperative games are a useful framework for modeling multi-agent behavior in environments where agents must collaborate in order to complete tasks. Having jointly completed a task and generated revenue, agents need to agree on some reasonable method of sharing their profits. One particularly appealing family of payoff divisions is the core, which consists of all coalitionally rational (or, stable) payoff divisions. Unfortunately, it is often the case that the core of a game is empty, i.e. there is no payoff scheme guaranteeing each group of agents a total payoff higher than what they can get on their own. As stability is a highly attractive property, there have been various methods of achieving it proposed in the literature. One natural way of stabilizing a game is via taxation, i.e. reducing the value of some coalitions in order to decrease their bargaining power. Existing taxation methods include the ε-core, the least-core and several others. However, taxing coalitions is in general undesirable: one would not wish to overly tamper with a given coalitional game, or overly tax the agents. Thus, in this work we study minimal taxation policies, i.e. those minimizing the amount of tax required in order to stabilize a given game. We show that games that minimize the total tax are to some extent a linear approximation of the original games, and explore their properties. We demonstrate connections between the minimal tax and the cost of stability, and characterize the types of games for which it is possible to obtain a tax-minimizing policy using variants of notion of the ε-core, as well as those for which it is possible to do so using reliability extensions. Copyright © 2013, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (www.ifaamas.org). All rights reserved

### Coalition structure generation over graphs

We give the analysis of the computational complexity of coalition structure generation over graphs. Given an undirected graph G = (N,E) and a valuation function v : P(N) → R over the subsets of nodes, the problem is to find a partition of N into connected subsets, that maximises the sum of the components values. This problem is generally NP-complete; in particular, it is hard for a defined class of valuation functions which are independent of disconnected members — that is, two nodes have no effect on each others marginal contribution to their vertex separator. Nonetheless, for all such functions we provide bounds on the complexity of coalition structure generation over general and minor free graphs. Our proof is constructive and yields algorithms for solving corresponding instances of the problem. Furthermore, we derive linear time bounds for graphs of bounded treewidth. However, as we show, the problem remains NP-complete for planar graphs, and hence, for any Kk minor free graphs where k ≥ 5. Moreover, a 3-SAT problem with m clauses can be represented by a coalition structure generation problem over a planar graph with O(m2) nodes. Importantly, our hardness result holds for a particular subclass of valuation functions, termed edge sum, where the value of each subset of nodes is simply determined by the sum of given weights of the edges in the induced subgraph

### Heuristic Voting as Ordinal Dominance Strategies

Decision making under uncertainty is a key component of many AI settings, and
in particular of voting scenarios where strategic agents are trying to reach a
joint decision. The common approach to handle uncertainty is by maximizing
expected utility, which requires a cardinal utility function as well as
detailed probabilistic information. However, often such probabilities are not
easy to estimate or apply.
To this end, we present a framework that allows "shades of gray" of
likelihood without probabilities. Specifically, we create a hierarchy of sets
of world states based on a prospective poll, with inner sets contain more
likely outcomes. This hierarchy of likelihoods allows us to define what we term
ordinally-dominated strategies. We use this approach to justify various known
voting heuristics as bounded-rational strategies.Comment: This is the full version of paper #6080 accepted to AAAI'1

### Acyclic Games and Iterative Voting

We consider iterative voting models and position them within the general
framework of acyclic games and game forms. More specifically, we classify
convergence results based on the underlying assumptions on the agent scheduler
(the order of players) and the action scheduler (which better-reply is played).
Our main technical result is providing a complete picture of conditions for
acyclicity in several variations of Plurality voting. In particular, we show
that (a) under the traditional lexicographic tie-breaking, the game converges
for any order of players under a weak restriction on voters' actions; and (b)
Plurality with randomized tie-breaking is not guaranteed to converge under
arbitrary agent schedulers, but from any initial state there is \emph{some}
path of better-replies to a Nash equilibrium. We thus show a first separation
between restricted-acyclicity and weak-acyclicity of game forms, thereby
settling an open question from [Kukushkin, IJGT 2011]. In addition, we refute
another conjecture regarding strongly-acyclic voting rules.Comment: some of the results appeared in preliminary versions of this paper:
Convergence to Equilibrium of Plurality Voting, Meir et al., AAAI 2010;
Strong and Weak Acyclicity in Iterative Voting, Meir, COMSOC 201

### On the convergence of iterative voting: how restrictive should restricted dynamics be?

We study convergence properties of iterative voting procedures. Such procedures are defined by a voting rule and a (restricted) iterative process, where at each step one agent can modify his vote towards a better outcome for himself. It is already known that if the iteration dynamics (the manner in which voters are allowed to modify their votes) are unrestricted, then the voting process may not converge. For most common voting rules this may be observed even under the best response dynamics limitation. It is therefore important to investigate whether and which natural restrictions on the dynamics of iterative voting procedures can guarantee convergence. To this end, we provide two general conditions on the dynamics based on iterative myopic improvements, each of which is sufficient for convergence. We then identify several classes of voting rules (including Positional Scoring Rules, Maximin, Copeland and Bucklin), along with their corresponding iterative processes, for which at least one of these conditions hold

### Error in the Euclidean Preference Model

Spatial models of preference, in the form of vector embeddings, are learned
by many deep learning and multiagent systems, including recommender systems.
Often these models are assumed to approximate a Euclidean structure, where an
individual prefers alternatives positioned closer to their "ideal point", as
measured by the Euclidean metric. However, Bogomolnaia and Laslier (2007)
showed that there exist ordinal preference profiles that cannot be represented
with this structure if the Euclidean space has two fewer dimensions than there
are individuals or alternatives. We extend this result, showing that there are
realistic situations in which almost all preference profiles cannot be
represented with the Euclidean model, and derive a theoretical lower bound on
the expected error when using the Euclidean model to approximate non-Euclidean
preference profiles. Our results have implications for the interpretation and
use of vector embeddings, because in some cases close approximation of
arbitrary, true ordinal relationships can be expected only if the
dimensionality of the embeddings is a substantial fraction of the number of
entities represented.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures. Accepted as an Extended Abstract to AAMAS 202

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